震裂山体崩塌形成特征及运动学三维模拟——以汶川县三官庙村崩塌为例

黎尤 何坤 胡卸文 刘波 周瑞宸 文强

黎尤, 何坤, 胡卸文, 等. 2022. 震裂山体崩塌形成特征及运动学三维模拟——以汶川县三官庙村崩塌为例[J]. 工程地质学报, 30(2): 542-552. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2021-0014
引用本文: 黎尤, 何坤, 胡卸文, 等. 2022. 震裂山体崩塌形成特征及运动学三维模拟——以汶川县三官庙村崩塌为例[J]. 工程地质学报, 30(2): 542-552. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2021-0014
Li You, He Kun, Hu Xiewen, et al. 2022. Formation characteristics and kinematics 3-D simulation of rockfall evolved from shattered mountain—Case study of Sanguanmiao Village rockfall in Wenchuan County[J]. Journal of Engineering Geology, 30(2): 542-552. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2021-0014
Citation: Li You, He Kun, Hu Xiewen, et al. 2022. Formation characteristics and kinematics 3-D simulation of rockfall evolved from shattered mountain—Case study of Sanguanmiao Village rockfall in Wenchuan County[J]. Journal of Engineering Geology, 30(2): 542-552. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2021-0014

震裂山体崩塌形成特征及运动学三维模拟——以汶川县三官庙村崩塌为例

doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2021-0014
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划 2018YFC1505401

国家自然科学基金 41731285

国家自然科学基金 41672283

国家自然科学基金 41907225

详细信息
    作者简介:

    黎尤(1997-),男,硕士生,主要从事地质灾害研究工作. E-mail: 1179918130@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    胡卸文(1963-),男,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要从事工程地质、环境地质方面的教学研究工作. E-mail: huxiewen@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P642.21

FORMATION CHARACTERISTICS AND KINEMATICS 3-D SIMULATION OF ROCKFALL EVOLVED FROM SHATTERED MOUNTAIN—CASE STUDY OF SANGUANMIAO VILLAGE ROCKFALL IN WENCHUAN COUNTY

Funds: 

the National Key Research and Development Program of China 2018YFC1505401

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41731285

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41672283

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41907225

  • 摘要: 三官庙村震裂山体位于汶川强震区,又于2018年7月20日和2019年8月22日发生了两次震后崩塌灾害,严重威胁坡脚居民生命财产安全。通过对震裂山体危岩现场地质调查、无人机航测和室内三维数值模拟,阐述了震裂山体-崩塌发生的成因机理和动力学过程,并对潜在危岩区的危险性进行了分析评价。研究结果认为,此类崩塌形成过程可划分为3个阶段:即潜在危岩体坡体早期构造及卸荷裂隙发育、震裂山体(危岩体)形成、崩塌失稳。崩塌源区岩体在岷江下切过程中形成卸荷裂隙,受“5·12”强震及其余震作用下形成震动拉裂缝,单薄山脊发生变形形成震裂山体,在雨季强降雨触发下发生崩塌。运用三维模拟软件RocPro3D模拟已发生崩塌块石堆积位置、优势运动路径,并与既有崩塌堆积区进行对比验证,综合得出岩土体表面特征参数。根据所得参数进一步模拟预测了危岩区可能发生崩塌的运动特征,对其优势运动路径、运动速度、运动能量和弹跳高度进行分析,得出崩塌危害影响范围和程度。论文的研究成果对强震区震裂山体灾害隐患点的减灾防灾工作具有重要的指导意义。
  • 图  1  危岩分区及岩体结构赤平投影图

    Figure  1.  Dangerous rock zoning and stereographic projection of rock mass structure

    图  2  2018.07.20崩塌源区

    Figure  2.  Rockfall source area,2018.07.20

    图  3  2019.08.22崩塌源区

    Figure  3.  Rockfall source area,2019.08.22

    图  4  强震区危岩崩塌变形破坏各阶段示意

    a. 潜在危岩体坡体早期构造及卸荷裂隙形成阶段; b震裂山体(危岩体)形成阶段; c崩塌失稳阶段

    Figure  4.  Schematic diagram of each stage of deformation and failure of dangerous rocks in strong earthquake area

    图  5  ⅠW1危岩带剖面图

    Figure  5.  Section of dangerous rock area ⅠW1

    图  6  ⅡW2危岩带剖面图

    Figure  6.  Section of dangerous rock area ⅡW2

    图  7  崩塌落石沿途地层岩性区域划分

    Figure  7.  Division of stratigraphic lithologic area along rockfall

    图  8  危岩崩塌与沿途崩落堆积部位三维空间分布

    Figure  8.  Three-dimensional spatial distribution of rockfall and accumulation area along the way

    图  9  基于数值模拟的各危岩区崩塌落石堆积空间分布位置示意图

    Figure  9.  Schematic diagram of spatial distribution of rockfall accumulation in each dangerous rock area based on numerical simulation

    图  10  危岩区崩塌落石运动速度、冲击能量与弹跳高度数值模拟空间分布示意图

    a. 运动速度;b. 冲击能量;c. 弹跳高度分布

    Figure  10.  Schematic diagram of spatial distribution of numerical simulation of movement velocity,impact energy and jumping height of rockfall in dangerous rock area

    图  11  优势路径下各区落石运动速度、冲击能量、弹跳高度与运动位置关系曲线

    a. Ⅰ号危岩区;b. Ⅱ号危岩区;c. Ⅲ号危岩区;d. Ⅳ号危岩区

    Figure  11.  Relationship curve between movement velocity,impact energy,jumping height and movement position of rockfall in different dangerous rock areas under dominant path

    表  1  不同危岩区内各危岩带岩体结构面特征

    Table  1.   Characteristics of rock mass structural plane in different dangerous rock zones

    位置 结构面组数 结构面产状
    Ⅰ号危岩区 ⅠW1危岩带 4 300°∠46°、331°∠82°、266°∠16°、209°∠68°
    ⅠW2危岩带 3 315°∠82°、156°∠60°、283°∠25°
    Ⅱ号危岩区 ⅡW1危岩带 5 328°∠36°、190°∠58°、137°∠86°、108°∠57°、230°∠46°
    ⅡW2危岩带 3 288°∠72°、210°∠70°、5°∠54°
    ⅡW3~5危岩带 5 274°∠60°、135°∠85°、70°∠57°、8°∠59°、350°∠42°
    ⅡW6危岩带 3 232°∠16°、239°∠48°、52°∠40°
    Ⅲ号危岩区 ⅢW1、3危岩带 4 304°∠78°、130°∠54°、298°∠22°、129°∠73°
    ⅢW4危岩带 3 233°∠60°、295°∠30°、129°∠73°
    ⅢW2、5危岩带 5 6°∠72°、288°∠72°、98°∠83°、295°∠30°、230°∠60°
    Ⅳ号危岩区 ⅣW1危岩带 4 290°∠70°、50°∠62°、112°∠88°、250°∠72°
    ⅣW2危岩带 3 260°∠84°、30°∠60°、15°∠13°
    ⅣW3危岩带 3 270°∠78°、86°∠74°、15°∠13°
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  各危岩区危岩体特征参数

    Table  2.   Characteristic parameters of dangerous rock mass in each dangerous rock area

    危岩分区 块石密度/kg·m-3 形状 直径/m
    Ⅰ号危岩区 2600 球体 1.5
    Ⅱ号危岩区
    Ⅲ号危岩区
    Ⅳ号危岩区
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  崩塌落石沿途岩土体表面特征参数

    Table  3.   Surface characteristic parameters of rock and soil along rockfall

    参数 花岗闪长岩 崩坡积物 残坡积物
    恢复系数
    标准值Rn 0.75 0.65 0.45
    正切值Rt 0.85 0.70 0.50
    变化范围Δ_R/% 4 5 8
    极限速度V_R(lim)/m·s-1 10 10 10
    极限变化范围Δ_R(lim)/% 2 3 6
    横向偏差
    变化范围Δ_θh/(°) 20.0 17.5 15.0
    极限速度V_θh(lim)/m·s-1 10 10 10
    极限变化范围V_θh(lim)/(°) 10.0 8.5 7.5
    竖向偏差
    变化范围Δ_θv/(°) 2 2 2
    极限速度V_θv(lim)/m·s-1 10 10 10
    极限变化范围V_θv(lim)/(°) 4 4 4
    摩擦系数
    k 0.40 0.75 0.80
    变化范围Δ_k/% 12 15 15
    极限速度V_k(lim)/m·s-1 10 10 10
    极限变化范围Δ_k(lim)/% 10 10 10
    转换参数
    角度β_lim/(°)(锐角情况下) 2 3 4
    角度β_lim/(°)(钝角情况下) 25 30 35
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-01-13
  • 修回日期:  2021-04-06
  • 刊出日期:  2022-04-25

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