深海多金属结核开采潜在工程地质环境影响研究进展

范智涵 贾永刚 滕秀英 孙志文 宋晓帅 杨关 王林森 李博闻

范智涵, 贾永刚, 滕秀英, 等. 2021. 深海多金属结核开采潜在工程地质环境影响研究进展[J].工程地质学报, 29(6): 1676-1691. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2021-0260
引用本文: 范智涵, 贾永刚, 滕秀英, 等. 2021. 深海多金属结核开采潜在工程地质环境影响研究进展[J].工程地质学报, 29(6): 1676-1691. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2021-0260
Fan Zhihan, Jia Yonggang, Teng Xiuying, et al. 2021. Review on potential engineering geological environment impacts of deep-sea polymetallic nodules mining[J].Journal of Engineering Geology, 29(6): 1676-1691. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2021-0260
Citation: Fan Zhihan, Jia Yonggang, Teng Xiuying, et al. 2021. Review on potential engineering geological environment impacts of deep-sea polymetallic nodules mining[J].Journal of Engineering Geology, 29(6): 1676-1691. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2021-0260

深海多金属结核开采潜在工程地质环境影响研究进展

doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2021-0260
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划 2018YFC0309200

国家自然科学基金重点项目 41831280

中央高校基本科研业务费专项 21CX06016A

中央高校基本科研业务费专项 201961034

详细信息
    作者简介:

    范智涵(1994-),男,博士生,主要从事海底采矿工程地质研究. E-mail: fanzhihan@stu.ouc.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    贾永刚(1965-),男,博士,教授,主要从事海洋工程地质研究. E-mail: yonggang@ouc.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P67;P642.5

REVIEW ON POTENTIAL ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT IMPACTS OF DEEP-SEA POLYMETALLIC NODULES MINING

Funds: 

National Key R & D Program of China 2018YFC0309200

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41831280

the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities 21CX06016A

the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities 201961034

  • 摘要: 深海多金属结核广泛分布于全球海底,资源储量丰富、开采潜力巨大。自20世纪60年代,围绕深海多金属结核开采提出了连续链斗式、穿梭艇式、管道提升式等的采矿方式,目前研究中多以管道提升式研究为主。将赋存在海床沉积物表面的多金属结核开采出来必然会引起表层沉积物的扰动,从而影响海水化学性质及海洋生物活性。国内外学者围绕深海多金属结核开采,从结核的资源储量、矿区工程地质条件、开采技术、环境影响等方面展开了诸多研究。基于国内外大量文献资料,着重整理了深海多金属结核富集区CC区(东太平洋的克拉里昂—克里帕顿断裂带之间的海底区域)的研究进展。针对以管道提升式开采方式开采深海多金属结核产生的潜在工程地质环境影响得到以下几点认识:(1)结核开采过程中对表层沉积物产生扰动致使沉积物发生再悬浮,再悬浮颗粒浓度是影响海水化学性质、海洋生物活性的主要原因;(2)矿区表层沉积物的工程地质性质是深海多金属结核开采过程中生态环境影响程度的关键控制因素,其决定了结核开采时沉积物再悬浮的质量、空间分布特征;(3)目前多金属结核开采的环境影响评价多基于对生物群落的影响程度进行定性的评价,尚未有基于沉积物工程地质性质变化、再悬浮沉积物时空分布规律进行的环境影响评价,未来深海多金属结核开采环境工程地质影响定量评价系统有待建立。以上认识对于深入了解多金属结核开采研究现状、工程地质环境影响特征、监测环境影响内容有重要意义。
  • 图  1  a为海底多金属结核形态及分布特征(引自(Hein et al., 2013)),b为多金属结核的CT扫描内部结构(引自(Hein et al., 2020))

    Figure  1.  Morphological characteristics of submarine polymetallic nodules(The left picture shows the polymetallic nodules(Hein et al., 2013) and the right picture shows the CT scan of the interior of the polymetallic nodules (Hein et al., 2020)

    图  2  海底矿产资源在全球的分布(Miller et al., 2018)

    Figure  2.  Distribution of pacific polymetallic nodules mine development area(Miller et al., 2018)

    图  3  a为德国勘探区某点处沉积物抗剪强度曲线(Oebius et al., 2001),b为韩国勘探区坐标某点处的抗剪强度曲线(Choi,2011)

    Figure  3.  The picture on the left is the shear strength curve of the sediment at a certain point in the exploration zone of Germany(Oebius et al., 2001), the picture on the right is the shear strength curve of the sediment at a certain point in the exploration zone of Korea(Choi, 2011)

    图  4  多金属结核赋存区不同扰动区表层沉积物柱状样及CT扫描图像(Vonnahme et al., 2020)

    Figure  4.  Columnar samples and CT scanning images of surface sediments in different disturbed areas of polymetallic nodule occurrence area (Vonnahme et al., 2020)

    图  5  深海多金属结核采矿系统示意图(Petterson et al., 2019)

    Figure  5.  Schematic diagram of deep sea polymetallic nodule mining system(Petterson et al., 2019))

    图  6  英国西南部热带海山采矿扰动实验环境监测装置、监测结果及模型预测结果(改自Spearman,2020)

    Figure  6.  Experimental environmental monitoring device, monitoring results and model prediction results of mining disturbance on tropical seamounts in southwest England(modified from Spearman, 2020)

    图  7  不同国家矿区扰动后沉积物孔隙度沿深度分布情况(改自Volz et al., 2020)

    Figure  7.  Distribution of sediment porosity along depth after disturbance in mining areas of different countries(modified from Volz et al., 2020)

    表  1  中国勘探区西部表层15~20 cm处沉积物性质

    Table  1.   Properties of sediments 15~20 cm above the surface of western exploration zone in China

    参数 含水率/% 孔隙比 干密度/g·cm-3 湿密度/g·cm-3 内摩擦角/(°) 黏聚力/kPa 抗剪强度/kPa
    取值 85~135 3.15~3.93 0.53~0.66 1.18~1.49 3.9~5.7 4.2~6.2 4.2~6.6
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  1978年至今世界各国组织的多金属结核试采工作汇总

    Table  2.   Summary of trial mining of polymetallic nodules organized by countries around the world from 1978 to present

    时间/年 组织者 试采地点 水深/m 采集方式 时长 采集量 来源
    1978 Kennecott公司 实验室模拟 5000 管道提升 何宗玉,2003
    1978 海洋采矿协会 大西洋 水-气力提升 22 h 500 t Sparenberg,2019;
    1978 美国海洋管理公司 太平洋 5000 流体管道提升 800 t 周怀阳等,2003
    1978 海洋矿业公司 CC区 5000 机械链齿挖掘 赵羿羽等,2016
    1979 德国 红海 2200 191.1 h 1578 m3
    1985 日本 小笠原春道群岛附近 集矿单体实验 周怀阳等,2003
    1990 苏联 黑海 790 清水泵管道提升 72 t·h-1
    1996和2003 印度和德国Siegen大学 印度洋 500 流体管道提升 姜秉国,2011
    2018 中国 南海 500 采矿车单体实验 10 t·h-1 自然资源部官网,2018.9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  世界各国组织的深海多金属结核开采环境影响试验研究汇总

    Table  3.   Summary of experimental research on environmental impacts of deep-sea polymetallic nodules organized by countries around the world

    时间/年 地点 组织者 监测内容 来源
    1970 布莱克高原 美国 环境基线及开采时物理化学及生物资料,如:悬浮颗粒浓度、水体化学成分、底栖生物性 周怀阳等,2003
    1972 百慕大海隆区 美国
    1972 CC区 日本、美国、法国 Amos et al., 1977
    1972 CC区 德国
    1975~1990 CC区水深1250 m处 美国 地质、生物和化学的环境基线,采矿对底栖生物的影响 Ozturgut et al., 1981; 周怀阳等,2003
    1991~1998 CC区水深5000 m处 俄罗斯、日本、美国 分3个阶段监测采矿对地质、化学和生物基线的影响 黄朝钰等,1993; 王春生等,2003
    1994~1996 日本近海 日本、美国 人造海底沉积物再悬浮、重沉积的监测 Trueblood,1992
    1988~1998 秘鲁盆地 德国 沉积物的扩散分布 Sparenberg,2019
    1995~2002 印度洋 印度 地质、化学和生物基线调查 Sharma,2015; 周怀阳,2008
    2001 印度洋 印度 悬浮沉积物浓度的监测 Sharma,2013
    2006 布亚特湾 印度尼西亚 尾矿排放的监测 Prisetiahadi et al., 2008
    2014 太平洋西南部 新西兰 底栖生物的影响 Leduc et al., 2015
    2016 英国西南部 英国 沉积物的扩散分布 Spearman et al., 2020
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  环境条件对采矿系统设计和运行的影响(改自Sharma,2011)

    Table  4.   Impact of environmental conditions on the design and operation of mining systems(modified from Sharma, 2011)

    序号 深海多金属结核区工程地质环境条件 对采矿系统的影响
    1 气候(风、降雨、气旋) 一年中不同季节开采时实际的天气状况
    2 水文(波浪、洋流、温度、压力) 影响平台上的运行,包括矿石处理和采矿系统部署在浅层海水中立管系统的稳定性
    3 地形(起伏、微地貌、坡度角) 采矿设备在海底的可操纵性和稳定性
    4 结核特征(等级,大小,丰度,形态,分布模式) 采矿车的收集、压碎的设计,提升管道的设计,从有害物质中筛选海底结核的设计
    5 沉积物性质(物质组成、结构特征、物理力学性质) 影响收集器设备的移动性和效率,使其能够正常运行而不会沉入(或卡在)沉积物中
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  OMI和OMA采矿系统试验时尾矿排放特征(王春生等, 2001a, 2001b)

    Table  5.   Discharge characteristics averaged over the mining period for mining tests conducted by OMI and OMA (Wang et al., 2001a, 2001b)

    参数 OMI试验 OMA试验(气举系统)
    液压提升系统 气举系统 一期 二期
    开采速度/t·h-1 11 5 13±5 42±10
    尾矿排放/L·s-1 459 101 95 80
    颗粒浓度/g·L-1 12.66±9.56 6.82±5.61 2.79±1.59 8.84±3.07
    尾矿温度/℃ 8.5 8.27±0.68 4.4-4.8 5-5.2
    尾矿密度/g·cm-3 1.034 1.036 1.029 1.033
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-05-11
  • 修回日期:  2021-07-23
  • 刊出日期:  2021-12-25

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