This paper investigates the characteristics of surface geological hazards and their impacts on the Three Gorges Water Diversion Project in the section of the Qinling-Daba mountain region. It gives a brief analysis of the regional and linear engineering geological conditions. It focuses on the analysis of characteristics of the distribution of geological hazards and their impacts on the water diversion project. At present, the following are found: (1) there are many types of shallow surface geological hazards with cluster and belt distribution characteristics and different volumes in Qinling-Daba mountain region; (2) the main diagnostic factors of Qinling-Daba mountain geological hazards are tectonic landscape, high and steep slopes, slope structure and landslide-prone combination of stratigraphy. The main triggering factors are concentration of the heavy rainfall, linear projects (mainly roads) slope-cutting and erosion; (3) the main impacts of surface geological hazards on the water division project are the safety of water facilities and related road construction, the reservoir and aqueduct sites, on which attention should be paid.