魏欣, 申艳军, 宁奕冰, 等. 2024. 高山冰川区冰碛土形成过程、成土特征及滑坡灾变机制研究进展[J]. 工程地质学报, 32(3): 947-962. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2023-0115.
    引用本文: 魏欣, 申艳军, 宁奕冰, 等. 2024. 高山冰川区冰碛土形成过程、成土特征及滑坡灾变机制研究进展[J]. 工程地质学报, 32(3): 947-962. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2023-0115.
    Wei Xin, Shen Yanjun, Ning Yibing, et al. 2024. The formation process, soil-forming characteristics, and landslide disaster mechanism of moraine in high-mountain glacier regions[J]. Journal of Engineering Geology, 32(3): 947-962. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2023-0115.
    Citation: Wei Xin, Shen Yanjun, Ning Yibing, et al. 2024. The formation process, soil-forming characteristics, and landslide disaster mechanism of moraine in high-mountain glacier regions[J]. Journal of Engineering Geology, 32(3): 947-962. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2023-0115.

    高山冰川区冰碛土形成过程、成土特征及滑坡灾变机制研究进展

    THE FORMATION PROCESS, SOIL-FORMING CHARACTERISTICS, AND LANDSLIDE DISASTER MECHANISM OF MORAINE IN HIGH-MOUNTAIN GLACIER REGIONS

    • 摘要: 冰碛土作为冰川搬运、堆积消融后的主要产物,广泛发育于我国环青藏高原边缘高山冰川区。受高海拔山区地形地貌及极端气候的影响,呈现宽级配、强渗透、非均质、无分选及无层理等特征,是诱发高山冰川区冰碛土滑坡地质灾害的主要物质来源。系统掌握高山冰川区冰碛土的形成过程及灾变演化特征对于科学认知孕灾机制具有重要现实价值。据此,首先论述了高山冰川区冰川作用及冰碛地貌特征,阐明了冰碛土的演化过程及发育条件,并针对我国环青藏高原边缘高山冰川区冰碛土的分布特征进行分析。其次,总结了冰碛土的相关分类指标,并探讨了不同沉积部位、沉积时间及沉积成因下冰碛土的典型成土特征。最后,梳理了冰碛土滑坡的主要致灾因素及结构特征,并剖析了在极端气候环境下冰碛土滑坡的发育特征及灾变演化过程。研究表明:(1)高山冰川区冰碛土发育主要受冰川冰进及冰退作用控制,在西部高海拔地区、高山系成群分布且气候垂直变化明显区域广泛发育。(2)不同沉积部位及沉积时间分布的冰碛土结构呈现显著区域分异性,主要表现为高海拔冰川源头的现代冰碛土具有结构松散、磨圆度差且层理不发育等特征,而古冰碛土分布海拔跨度大且结构相对致密。(3)不同类型冰碛土边坡结构引发的界面型滑坡破坏模式包括:浅表层冰碛层降/融水蠕滑型、冰水堆积-古冰碛层界面控制型及冰碛层-湖相沉积接触风化型等3类,其内部富冰带的滞水促滑效应是引发冰碛土界面型滑坡灾害的主要诱因。该研究旨在为揭示高山冰川区冰碛土地质特征及滑坡灾变机制提供基础参考。

       

      Abstract: After glacier transport, accumulation, and ablation, moraine soil constitutes the primary product in high-mountain glacier areas on the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Influenced by the topography and extreme climate of these regions, it exhibits characteristics such as wide gradation, strong penetration, heterogeneity, non-sorting, and non-bedding. Moraine soil serves as the principal material source contributing to the geological disaster of moraine landslides in high-mountain glacier areas. Systematically understanding the formation process and disaster evolution characteristics of moraine soils in alpine mountain areas is of great practical value for a scientific comprehension of disaster pregnancy mechanisms. To achieve this, the study begins by discussing glaciation and moraine geomorphology characteristics in alpine mountain areas. It then clarifies the evolution process and development conditions of moraine soil, analyzing the distribution characteristics of moraines in high-mountain glacier areas on the margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Next, the study summarizes related classification indicators of moraine soil and discusses typical soil-forming characteristics under different deposition positions, deposition times, and genesis. Finally, the main disaster-causing factors and structural characteristics of moraine landslides are examined, and the development characteristics and disaster evolution process of moraine landslides under extreme climate conditions are analyzed. The findings indicate that: (1) The development of moraine soil in high-mountain glacier areas is primarily influenced by glacial ice advance and retreat, prevalent in the western high-altitude region and areas with clustered high-mountain systems exhibiting distinct vertical climate changes. (2) Moraine structures differ based on deposition positions and times, revealing regional variations. Modern moraines at high-altitude glacier sources exhibit loose structure, poor circularity, and undeveloped bedding, while ancient moraines with a broad altitude span feature relatively dense structure. (3) Various failure modes of interfacial landslides induced by different moraine slope structures include shallow surface moraine fall/meltwater creep, ice water accumulation, and ancient moraine layer interface control. The water-holding and slip-promoting effect of the ice-rich zone emerges as the primary cause of landslide disasters at the moraine soil interface. This study aims to provide a fundamental reference for understanding the characteristics of moraine land quality and the mechanisms underlying landslide disasters in high-mountain glacier areas.

       

    /

    返回文章
    返回