廖立业, 曾庆利, 马许平, 等. 2024. 白龙江上游黑多间歇性慢速滑坡的特征、过程与驱动机理研究[J]. 工程地质学报, 32(3): 918-934. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2023-0312.
    引用本文: 廖立业, 曾庆利, 马许平, 等. 2024. 白龙江上游黑多间歇性慢速滑坡的特征、过程与驱动机理研究[J]. 工程地质学报, 32(3): 918-934. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2023-0312.
    Liao Liye, Zeng Qingli, Ma Xuping, et al. 2024. Characteristics, process and mechanism of Heiduo intermittent slow-moving landslides, upstream of Bailong River, China[J]. Journal of Engineering Geology, 32(3): 918-934. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2023-0312.
    Citation: Liao Liye, Zeng Qingli, Ma Xuping, et al. 2024. Characteristics, process and mechanism of Heiduo intermittent slow-moving landslides, upstream of Bailong River, China[J]. Journal of Engineering Geology, 32(3): 918-934. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2023-0312.

    白龙江上游黑多间歇性慢速滑坡的特征、过程与驱动机理研究

    CHARACTERISTICS, PROCESS AND MECHANISM OF HEIDUO INTERMITTENT SLOW-MOVING LANDSLIDES, UPSTREAM OF BAILONG RIVER, CHINA

    • 摘要: 慢速堆积体滑坡是白龙江中上游流域常见的一种地质灾害,具有滑移速度慢、持续时间长的特点,因瞬时灾难小而未受重视。慢速滑坡长期持续的滑动为我们研究其过程与机制提供了难得的机会。本文以白龙江上游、迭部县黑多村慢速滑坡为研究对象,通过现场调查与访问、多期高清遥感影像解译、降雨数据分析和室内岩土力学实验,描述了黑多慢速滑坡形成的地质环境条件、变形破坏特征,研究了慢速滑坡的运动演化过程,探讨了慢速滑坡的形成机理、驱动因素,以及未来发展趋势。研究表明:(1)黑多慢速滑坡属狭长沟道型浅层堆积体滑坡,体积约30.5×104 m3,启动前已经具有滑坡体、滑带土、滑床3层结构,滑带土细颗粒含量高、富含黏土矿物、塑性强;(2)黑多慢速滑坡近期至少历经3次显著滑动,分别为20世纪90年代和2020年7~8月间由持续性降雨诱发的滑动,以及2008~2010年间由2008年汶川大地震叠加降雨诱发的持续性滑动;(3)上部平缓沟道内的滑体受降雨渗流驱动发生牵引式滑动,下部平缓沟道内的滑体受中上部滑体加载及降雨驱动而发生推移式滑动;(4)黑多慢速滑坡表现出启动-运动-停滞循环的间歇性滑动特征,富含页岩、板岩风化物的软弱岩土体和滑动带是慢速滑坡发育的内在基础,持续性降雨软化滑动带、地震与降雨叠加降低滑体刚度以及崩滑体加载是慢速滑坡加速启动的主要外部驱动力,低重心、缓滑面、前缘阻塞等地貌特点是滑坡维持慢速并暂时停滞稳定的可能机制;(5)未来沟道内滑坡体仍然会再次发生类似的慢速滑动,但是左侧体积约10.5×104 m3的滑坡和18.5×104 m3的变形体可能会进一步失稳而堵塞主沟,引发大规模、高速堵溃型泥石流,威胁下游村庄和省道安全。本研究对认识白龙江流域同类滑坡灾害的演化过程、机制及灾害防治工作具有重要的参考意义。

       

      Abstract: Slow-moving accumulation landslides are common geological hazards in the middle and upper reaches of the Bailong River. Characterized by slow sliding speeds and long longevity, these landslides have often been overlooked due to their small instantaneous disasters. The long-term continuous sliding of slow-moving landslides provides a rare opportunity to study their process and mechanism. In this paper, we take the slow-moving landslide in Heiduo Village, Diebu County, in the upper reaches of the Bailong River as the research object. Through field investigation and interviews, interpretation of multi-phase high-resolution remote sensing images, analysis of rainfall data, and laboratory physical and mechanical tests, we describe the geological environmental conditions, deformation, and failure characteristics of the slow-moving landslide. Additionally, we study the process of movement and evolution, and discuss the formation mechanism, driving factors, and future development trend of the Heiduo slow-moving landslide. The study reveals that: (1)The Heiduo slow-moving landslide is a shallow accumulation landslide developed in a narrow and long channel with a volume of approximately 36.6×104 m3. Before its initiation, it already had a three-layer structure consisting of the sliding body, sliding zone, and sliding bed. The soil in the sliding zone has a high fine particle content, rich clay minerals, and high plasticity. (2)The Heiduo slow-moving landslide has recently experienced at least three significant movements induced by continuous rainfall in the 1990 s and July-August 2020, as well as continuous movement induced by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake combined with rainfall from 2008 to 2010. (3)The sliding body in the upper gentle channel is driven by rainfall seepage to produce a retrogressive slide, while the sliding body in the lower gentle channel is driven by the loading of the middle and upper sliding body and combined rainfall to produce a push-type slide. (4)The Heiduo slow-moving landslide exhibits intermittent movement characteristics of start-movement-stagnation cycles. The weak rock soil mass and sliding zone rich in shale and slate weathered materials are the internal basis for the development of the slow-moving landslide. Continuous rainfall softens the sliding zone, earthquakes coupled with rainfall reduce the stiffness of the landslide, and the load of the landslide body is the main external driving force for the acceleration of the slow-moving landslide. The geomorphologic characteristics of low gravity, gentle sliding surface, and distal blocking are possible mechanisms of the slow-moving and temporary stagnation of the landslide. (5)In the future, the landslide body in the current channel will still undergo similar slow-moving movement. Furthermore, the adjacent secondary landslide body of approximately 10.5×104 m3 and deformation body of approximately 18.5×104 m3 might destabilize and block the main channel, causing large-scale, high-speed dam-breach debris flows, threatening downstream villages and roads. This study has important implications for understanding the process, mechanism, and disaster prevention of similar landslides in the middle and upper reaches of the Bailong River.

       

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