郭福钟, 郑博文, 祁生文, 等. 2024. 三维地质建模技术与方法综述[J]. 工程地质学报, 32(3): 1143-1153. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2024-0103.
    引用本文: 郭福钟, 郑博文, 祁生文, 等. 2024. 三维地质建模技术与方法综述[J]. 工程地质学报, 32(3): 1143-1153. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2024-0103.
    Guo Fuzhong, Zheng Bowen, Qi Shengwen, et al. 2024. A review of 3D geological modeling technology and methods[J]. Journal of Engineering Geology, 32(3): 1143-1153. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2024-0103.
    Citation: Guo Fuzhong, Zheng Bowen, Qi Shengwen, et al. 2024. A review of 3D geological modeling technology and methods[J]. Journal of Engineering Geology, 32(3): 1143-1153. doi: 10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2024-0103.

    三维地质建模技术与方法综述

    A REVIEW OF 3D GEOLOGICAL MODELING TECHNOLOGY AND METHODS

    • 摘要: 三维地质建模是起源于工业领域计算机图形学引用到地学领域形成的三维数字化技术,地质体轮廓不规则性、特性的空间不均匀性、已知数据的稀疏性和认识过程的反复性决定了三维地质建模对图形几何算法和渲染技术的特殊要求,也决定了与其他领域三维技术如GIS和BIM之间存在的基础性差别。针对我国基础建设领域工程地质三维地质建模技术类型繁多、良莠不齐的现实,本文系统性地阐述了三维地质建模的基础理论与核心技术、建模方法、应用功能实现与展望:(1)三维地质建模以离散数学理论为基础,插值算法是其中最关键的核心技术,文中介绍和对比分析了离散光滑(DSI)和克里金两种插值方法,从原理和应用的角度论证了DSI具有更好的适应性;(2)显式和隐式建模方法是核心技术针对不同场景形成的三维地质建模的通用方法,在工程地质领域分别适合于勘探为主和物探为主的情形,文中结合应用案例阐述了各自的特点;(3)应用功能是显式和隐式建模方法针对不同特点的地质体的应用方式,其中的通用型功能针对地层和构造等所有地学领域都涉及的地质体,定制化功能则针对行业关心的特定地质体(如水电行业的深切河谷岸坡卸荷带)且以提高建模效率为主要目的。本文通过对三维地质建模技术的阶段性总结,为未来发展提供有价值的技术指引,并将为三维工程地质体结构的透明化表征提供重要的技术支撑。

       

      Abstract: 3D geological modeling is a 3D digital technology originating from computer graphics in the industrial field and later introduced into geoscience. The irregularity of geological mass, spatial heterogeneity of geological characteristics, sparsity of known parameters, and the iterative nature of the understanding process determine the special requirements for graphics geometry algorithms and rendering techniques in 3D geological modeling. These factors also determine the fundamental difference between 3D technologies in other fields such as GIS and BIM. In response to the reality that there is a wide variety of engineering geological 3D geological modeling technologies in China's infrastructure construction field, with varying levels of quality, this paper systematically expounds on the basic theory of 3D geological modeling, core technologies, modeling methods, application function implementation, and prospects:(1) 3D geological modeling is based on the theory of discrete mathematics, with interpolation algorithms being the most critical core technology. This paper introduces and compares two interpolation methods, discrete smoothing (DSI) and Kriging. It argues from the perspectives of principle and application that DSI has better adaptability. (2) Explicit and implicit modeling methods are the common methods of three-dimensional geological modeling formed by the core technology for different scenarios, which are suitable for geographical exploration and geophysical exploration in the field of engineering geology respectively. The paper illustrates the characteristics of each method with application cases. (3) Application functions are the ways in which explicit and implicit modeling methods are applied to geological bodies with different characteristics. The general-purpose functions are applicable to all geological bodies involved in geological fields such as strata and structures, while customized functions are aimed at specific geological masses concerned by the industry (such as the deep valley bank slope unloading belt in the hydropower industry) and the main purpose is to improve the modeling efficiency. By summarizing the stage of 3D geological modeling technology, this paper provides valuable technical guidance for future development and will provide important technical support for the transparent representation of 3D engineering geological body structure.

       

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