1995 Vol. 3, No. 4

论文
During last years the national economy is developed and grows by a rate of 10% per year. Thus we can predict with high growing development of our national economy,many large engineering projects, which could fall into the raw of largest ones in the world will be constructed in China in the 21st century. For this reason Chinese engineering geologists must take reasearch beforehand: earlier engineering geological indentification of the fearibility of sites for large projects, the engineering geological challenges and problems which could arise in the process of construction, the engineering geological prediction and prevention of environment after construction, in order to provide a sound basis for future design and construction of the large engineering projects. During last years the national economy is developed and grows by a rate of 10% per year. Thus we can predict with high growing development of our national economy,many large engineering projects, which could fall into the raw of largest ones in the world will be constructed in China in the 21st century. For this reason Chinese engineering geologists must take reasearch beforehand: earlier engineering geological indentification of the fearibility of sites for large projects, the engineering geological challenges and problems which could arise in the process of construction, the engineering geological prediction and prevention of environment after construction, in order to provide a sound basis for future design and construction of the large engineering projects.
Environmental geology is an applied geology, a new borderline science developed from the mutual pentration, interaction, and combination of geology and environmental science.Taking the human-geologic environment system as its research subject, it studieds the interaction, development and evolution tendency of human engineering and economic activities and geologic environment. with an emphasis on the arisng and developing problems of geologic hazards and environinental geology. On this basis a rearonable coordination of humangeologic environmet relationship, strategy and measure of effective prevention from geologic hazards are suggested. Environmental geology is an applied geology, a new borderline science developed from the mutual pentration, interaction, and combination of geology and environmental science.Taking the human-geologic environment system as its research subject, it studieds the interaction, development and evolution tendency of human engineering and economic activities and geologic environment. with an emphasis on the arisng and developing problems of geologic hazards and environinental geology. On this basis a rearonable coordination of humangeologic environmet relationship, strategy and measure of effective prevention from geologic hazards are suggested.
The environmentai geotechnique problem is equal to the problems of pollution and ecological hazards. So there exist two environmental problems. The types and contents of the two problems are disccused systematically in the paper, with an emphasis on three main engineering geological topics in eastern China in the 21th Century. The environmentai geotechnique problem is equal to the problems of pollution and ecological hazards. So there exist two environmental problems. The types and contents of the two problems are disccused systematically in the paper, with an emphasis on three main engineering geological topics in eastern China in the 21th Century.
Environmental engineering geology (EEG)represents a new stage in the development of engineering geology, embracing and developing all problems of engineering geology. EEG, studying the interaction between project costruction and geological environment deteriorations, is pending further development into engineering-environment-hazards science. On one hand, due to correlation among, and causality of various natural environment deterionations and hazards (chain of environment deteriorations and chain of hazards), EEG should study not only geological environment and hazards, but also land environment, water environment and social environment. As applied geology, EEG and its mother discipline, engineering-environment-hazards science, will. have 3 pillars-mechanics, geography and economics. One should work hard for mutual infiltration and convergence of geology and geography at first. On the other hand, due to correlation among, and causality of various human activities (chain of activities), EEG should study not only project construction and running, but also mining and water activities, including groundwater exploitation and sewage drainage, causing serious environmental deterioration and hazards, bringing to a crisis. The fundamental way out for it lies not only in the scientific-technological progress, but also in the cultural regulation. One should work hard for mutual infiltration and convergence of science, technology and culture. Environmental engineering geology (EEG)represents a new stage in the development of engineering geology, embracing and developing all problems of engineering geology. EEG, studying the interaction between project costruction and geological environment deteriorations, is pending further development into engineering-environment-hazards science. On one hand, due to correlation among, and causality of various natural environment deterionations and hazards (chain of environment deteriorations and chain of hazards), EEG should study not only geological environment and hazards, but also land environment, water environment and social environment. As applied geology, EEG and its mother discipline, engineering-environment-hazards science, will. have 3 pillars-mechanics, geography and economics. One should work hard for mutual infiltration and convergence of geology and geography at first. On the other hand, due to correlation among, and causality of various human activities (chain of activities), EEG should study not only project construction and running, but also mining and water activities, including groundwater exploitation and sewage drainage, causing serious environmental deterioration and hazards, bringing to a crisis. The fundamental way out for it lies not only in the scientific-technological progress, but also in the cultural regulation. One should work hard for mutual infiltration and convergence of science, technology and culture.
How to analyze the displacement data gained from monitoring is very important for rock-soil engineering design and constructuion. Displacement-time analysis has been becoming the main favourable method for a long time. But in order to make the data more useful for modifying design and. guiding construction, we put out the method of comparing and analysing displacement at space in this paper. Furthermore, we suppose to creat the method of synthetically displace at time and space, when connecting it with the usual method of displacement-time analysis. The former has been proved applicable since it has been used at the deep excavation pit of Chaiyun Buiding in Jinan, etc. How to analyze the displacement data gained from monitoring is very important for rock-soil engineering design and constructuion. Displacement-time analysis has been becoming the main favourable method for a long time. But in order to make the data more useful for modifying design and. guiding construction, we put out the method of comparing and analysing displacement at space in this paper. Furthermore, we suppose to creat the method of synthetically displace at time and space, when connecting it with the usual method of displacement-time analysis. The former has been proved applicable since it has been used at the deep excavation pit of Chaiyun Buiding in Jinan, etc.
The main characteristics of geo-engineering design is non-structure, non-parameter and non-standard, meanwhile, risk optimazing and feed back changeable. Only a formula and regular method used is not suitable to geo-engineering design. It must develop a non-structure tool that can automatically create object-oriented solution path following the geo-engineering characteristics. The basic contents of geo-engineering design are summarized, and the geometry-based and the AI-based, computer aided geo-engineering design of support system is discussed. A case-study illustrates that the computer-aided geo-engineering design of support system is applied to the geologic hazard controlling project of the Lianziya dangerous rockmass of the Three Gorges , the Yangtze River. The main characteristics of geo-engineering design is non-structure, non-parameter and non-standard, meanwhile, risk optimazing and feed back changeable. Only a formula and regular method used is not suitable to geo-engineering design. It must develop a non-structure tool that can automatically create object-oriented solution path following the geo-engineering characteristics. The basic contents of geo-engineering design are summarized, and the geometry-based and the AI-based, computer aided geo-engineering design of support system is discussed. A case-study illustrates that the computer-aided geo-engineering design of support system is applied to the geologic hazard controlling project of the Lianziya dangerous rockmass of the Three Gorges , the Yangtze River.
The numerical simulation method of crack extension process in rock masses is studied in the paper by using the fracture theory and the equivalent continuous model of joint rock.The computed examples given at the end of the paper show that the method is effective. The numerical simulation method of crack extension process in rock masses is studied in the paper by using the fracture theory and the equivalent continuous model of joint rock.The computed examples given at the end of the paper show that the method is effective.
With application of neural network theory, a new method has been proposed for direct estimation of the safety factor for circular and wedge failure of slopes. Furthermore, a new algorithm called generalized learning algorithm is designed to learn better knowledge of estimation of the safety factors of slopes from cases. The learned knowledge is then used for extrapolating prediction of the safety factor of new slope, Compared with the safety factors predicted by the limit equilibrium and maximum likelihood method, the neural network method has high accouracy of extrapolating prediction and high ability of self-learning and processing uncertainty. With application of neural network theory, a new method has been proposed for direct estimation of the safety factor for circular and wedge failure of slopes. Furthermore, a new algorithm called generalized learning algorithm is designed to learn better knowledge of estimation of the safety factors of slopes from cases. The learned knowledge is then used for extrapolating prediction of the safety factor of new slope, Compared with the safety factors predicted by the limit equilibrium and maximum likelihood method, the neural network method has high accouracy of extrapolating prediction and high ability of self-learning and processing uncertainty.
The structure and stablity of high slope rockmass are important problems for engineerin geology studies. Using the high resolution seismograph and seismic tomograpy of reflections, the high slope rockmass of Jinchuan opencut mine is studied in detail. The result reveals clearly the thickness of the surface loose layer predominant structural faces, and joint weak interface in the rockmass. No weak layer down slope is found. The structure and stablity of high slope rockmass are important problems for engineerin geology studies. Using the high resolution seismograph and seismic tomograpy of reflections, the high slope rockmass of Jinchuan opencut mine is studied in detail. The result reveals clearly the thickness of the surface loose layer predominant structural faces, and joint weak interface in the rockmass. No weak layer down slope is found.
The gamma-energy spectrum detection was performed on the Daliushu dam site of Heisanxia of Huanghe River. The obtained result was systematicallly analyzed by mathematical statistical method on the basis engineering geological investigation and in connection with geological conditions of the dam site. From these data the some engineering geological problems, such as wether the fault F201 passes nearby the dam site and its extent, the surface gullies in Qingtuoya-Hongguliang zone and genesis and stability of ground fissures in surroundings of the site are preliminarily evaluated and disscussed in this paper. The gamma-energy spectrum detection was performed on the Daliushu dam site of Heisanxia of Huanghe River. The obtained result was systematicallly analyzed by mathematical statistical method on the basis engineering geological investigation and in connection with geological conditions of the dam site. From these data the some engineering geological problems, such as wether the fault F201 passes nearby the dam site and its extent, the surface gullies in Qingtuoya-Hongguliang zone and genesis and stability of ground fissures in surroundings of the site are preliminarily evaluated and disscussed in this paper.
The recent reaearch result by authors indicates that the Hipparion (N2) red soil covered with loess and sand in northern China a regional expansive clay. It has high montmorillonite content and high swelling potential and hence has a harmful influence on engineering construction and is easy to undergo geologic harzards. This paper gives a result of comprehensive reserch on engineering characteristics of the Hipparion (N2) red soil and formation mechanism of harmful engineering behaviour in Abag Banner , Nei Mongol Autonomous Region. The recent reaearch result by authors indicates that the Hipparion (N2) red soil covered with loess and sand in northern China a regional expansive clay. It has high montmorillonite content and high swelling potential and hence has a harmful influence on engineering construction and is easy to undergo geologic harzards. This paper gives a result of comprehensive reserch on engineering characteristics of the Hipparion (N2) red soil and formation mechanism of harmful engineering behaviour in Abag Banner , Nei Mongol Autonomous Region.
This paper deals with interacton between the urban ecologic system and environment in Xuzhou City. Environment constrains the function type, layout and operation pattern of the urban ecologic system; On the other hand, the system impacts the environment by input,output and integrated effects induced by input and output, in turn, the actions induces some urban environment problems and caused temporal the disturbance of the urban ecologic system. This paper deals with interacton between the urban ecologic system and environment in Xuzhou City. Environment constrains the function type, layout and operation pattern of the urban ecologic system; On the other hand, the system impacts the environment by input,output and integrated effects induced by input and output, in turn, the actions induces some urban environment problems and caused temporal the disturbance of the urban ecologic system.