2005 Vol. 13, No. 1

论文
Kangding airport, to be constructed at an elevation of 4232.5 m above sea level, is located on the south-west foot of Zheduo mountain stretching from south-east to north-west on eastern Tibetan Plateau. It will be the second highest airport in the world after Bangda airport (4,400 m) located on Tibet. The Zheduo mountain consists of a granite batholith surrounded by a vast quaternary bajada with a width of 4 to 5 kilometers. The airport is situated on the south-western part of the bajada. The rock debris was transported to the base of the range by landslides and rock falls tend to fully cover the Zheduo granite base rock. Besides boulders, gravels and sands, special boulders with diameters of 30 to 100 cm without the other fine grains exist under the foundation of the airport. Those boulders have a rough surface in either sub-rounded or sub-angular shapes. They are buried within 2 meters of depth and spread in forms of ,stone nests,, ,stone rivers, and ,stone seas,. The special boulder is a product of a long evolutionary process, in which the colluvial deposits were removed by underground erosion. In general, the boulders, gravels, sands and special boulders are good foundation materials. Nonetheless, underground erosion causes settlement and deterioration of engineering properties. The apparent free falling of these special boulders poses potential threats to the stability of the airport foundation. Therefore, drainage is a key component in construction of the foundation to assure its stability. Kangding airport, to be constructed at an elevation of 4232.5 m above sea level, is located on the south-west foot of Zheduo mountain stretching from south-east to north-west on eastern Tibetan Plateau. It will be the second highest airport in the world after Bangda airport (4,400 m) located on Tibet. The Zheduo mountain consists of a granite batholith surrounded by a vast quaternary bajada with a width of 4 to 5 kilometers. The airport is situated on the south-western part of the bajada. The rock debris was transported to the base of the range by landslides and rock falls tend to fully cover the Zheduo granite base rock. Besides boulders, gravels and sands, special boulders with diameters of 30 to 100 cm without the other fine grains exist under the foundation of the airport. Those boulders have a rough surface in either sub-rounded or sub-angular shapes. They are buried within 2 meters of depth and spread in forms of ,stone nests,, ,stone rivers, and ,stone seas,. The special boulder is a product of a long evolutionary process, in which the colluvial deposits were removed by underground erosion. In general, the boulders, gravels, sands and special boulders are good foundation materials. Nonetheless, underground erosion causes settlement and deterioration of engineering properties. The apparent free falling of these special boulders poses potential threats to the stability of the airport foundation. Therefore, drainage is a key component in construction of the foundation to assure its stability.
Knowledge about the dissolution process of the marlite karst is a key to understanding the engineering characteristics and genesis of weathering rocks and their residual-to-diluvial-type expansive soil. However, this line of study has not received enough attentions in karstology research. Through analysis of SEM photos of samples of marlite with different weathering degrees from the Triassic Badong formation(T 2b) in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, the authors found that the dissolution within marlite results in the variation of its micro-structures. Such variation could in turn reduce the mechanical strength of marlite when the dissolution of micro-holes occurs. Furthermore, geo-disasters such as differential subsidence, fissures, landslide, collapse and cave-in could result from the development of large dissolution holes or deformation of residual-to-diluvial-type expansive soils. Knowledge about the dissolution process of the marlite karst is a key to understanding the engineering characteristics and genesis of weathering rocks and their residual-to-diluvial-type expansive soil. However, this line of study has not received enough attentions in karstology research. Through analysis of SEM photos of samples of marlite with different weathering degrees from the Triassic Badong formation(T 2b) in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, the authors found that the dissolution within marlite results in the variation of its micro-structures. Such variation could in turn reduce the mechanical strength of marlite when the dissolution of micro-holes occurs. Furthermore, geo-disasters such as differential subsidence, fissures, landslide, collapse and cave-in could result from the development of large dissolution holes or deformation of residual-to-diluvial-type expansive soils.
Based on field investigation, using multiple methods including SEM, XRD, as well as soil physics and soil chemistry methods, the particle composition, aggregate, and cement composition were measured on 48 samples of Malan loess from 12 counties of north Shaanxi province and west Shanxi province. The test results indicate that the cements, including clay minerals, super fine-grained carbonate, free oxides, and organic materials, mainly exist as a aggregate coat on the grain surface, and form weak cementation between the frameworks of sand loess. The clay minerals and organic materials in sand loess have weak cementation only in dry state because it is not stable in water. Calcium carbonates (CaCO 3) in sand loess exist as both coarse grains and fine grains, forming the framework and cementation. The super fine grain is a kind of irreversible cementing material, which plays an important role in the course of aggregate formation, preservation, as well as connection between aggregates and debris grains. The contents of amorphous oxides (SiO 2、Fe 2O 3、Al 2O 3) are low, but they should not be ignored in the cementation of sand loess because of their interaction with other cements on the grain surface. Based on the statistic analysis, the aggregation coefficient can reflect the cementation degree of sand loess, which establishes a bridge (strong relationship) between cementation and physical-mechanical properties of loess. The study of cement composition and their cementation mechanisms not only helps us to have a better understating of the engineering properties of sand loess, but also provides a better insight into the supergene geochemical environment of loess plateau of China. Based on field investigation, using multiple methods including SEM, XRD, as well as soil physics and soil chemistry methods, the particle composition, aggregate, and cement composition were measured on 48 samples of Malan loess from 12 counties of north Shaanxi province and west Shanxi province. The test results indicate that the cements, including clay minerals, super fine-grained carbonate, free oxides, and organic materials, mainly exist as a aggregate coat on the grain surface, and form weak cementation between the frameworks of sand loess. The clay minerals and organic materials in sand loess have weak cementation only in dry state because it is not stable in water. Calcium carbonates (CaCO 3) in sand loess exist as both coarse grains and fine grains, forming the framework and cementation. The super fine grain is a kind of irreversible cementing material, which plays an important role in the course of aggregate formation, preservation, as well as connection between aggregates and debris grains. The contents of amorphous oxides (SiO 2、Fe 2O 3、Al 2O 3) are low, but they should not be ignored in the cementation of sand loess because of their interaction with other cements on the grain surface. Based on the statistic analysis, the aggregation coefficient can reflect the cementation degree of sand loess, which establishes a bridge (strong relationship) between cementation and physical-mechanical properties of loess. The study of cement composition and their cementation mechanisms not only helps us to have a better understating of the engineering properties of sand loess, but also provides a better insight into the supergene geochemical environment of loess plateau of China.
Three layers of shallow marine clays with different sedimentary history are observed in Lianyungang area. The upper layer of the soft marine clays is a major concern in engineering practice because of possible settlement and stability problems of embankment built over it. This paper assessed the sediment environment of soft marine clays and their physical and mechanical properties. The shallow marine clays were formed chronically in the Holocene between Huanghua (the Yellow Sea) transgression and 1860,s A.D. The statistical results show that the clays have high water contents, and the ratio of their vane test strength vs. the effective overburden pressure ranges from 0.2 to 0.4. Burland,s void index and intrinsic compression line are then used to characterize structures of the marine clays. It is concluded that highly structured clays can be easily disturbed, and the laboratory strength is distorted. Three layers of shallow marine clays with different sedimentary history are observed in Lianyungang area. The upper layer of the soft marine clays is a major concern in engineering practice because of possible settlement and stability problems of embankment built over it. This paper assessed the sediment environment of soft marine clays and their physical and mechanical properties. The shallow marine clays were formed chronically in the Holocene between Huanghua (the Yellow Sea) transgression and 1860,s A.D. The statistical results show that the clays have high water contents, and the ratio of their vane test strength vs. the effective overburden pressure ranges from 0.2 to 0.4. Burland,s void index and intrinsic compression line are then used to characterize structures of the marine clays. It is concluded that highly structured clays can be easily disturbed, and the laboratory strength is distorted.
Through detailed analysis of data obtained from engineering geological explorations at Chongming Island, this paper characterizes the distribution of both the shallow sandy and the silty soils present in the area. The authors then classify each soil according to its lithology and penetration resistance, and present several typical penetration curves. At the end, this paper discusses the liquefaction characteristic of each soil. Through detailed analysis of data obtained from engineering geological explorations at Chongming Island, this paper characterizes the distribution of both the shallow sandy and the silty soils present in the area. The authors then classify each soil according to its lithology and penetration resistance, and present several typical penetration curves. At the end, this paper discusses the liquefaction characteristic of each soil.
Most of the current soil treatment and ground treatment techniques do not take into consideration the original soil structure; instead, they enforce strong disturbances upon the soil by remolding soil structure at a great consumption of energy and a high cost. Based on the mini-scale structure of soil, the authors classify ground treatment into three types derived from the mechanical property of reinforced bodies and the structural varying angle of reinforced soils, and then further divide them into two subcategories derived from enforceable paths of soil treatment techniques. The interaction of reinforced bodies and soils along with the structural effects of soils are emphasized in this classification. If the original strength of soil can be fully utilized, and supplemental structural strengthening can be designed and implemented on the basis of primary structural form of the specific soil to be treated, it will reduce project costs by conserving energy and minimizing environmental impacts and disturbance of the soil. Most of the current soil treatment and ground treatment techniques do not take into consideration the original soil structure; instead, they enforce strong disturbances upon the soil by remolding soil structure at a great consumption of energy and a high cost. Based on the mini-scale structure of soil, the authors classify ground treatment into three types derived from the mechanical property of reinforced bodies and the structural varying angle of reinforced soils, and then further divide them into two subcategories derived from enforceable paths of soil treatment techniques. The interaction of reinforced bodies and soils along with the structural effects of soils are emphasized in this classification. If the original strength of soil can be fully utilized, and supplemental structural strengthening can be designed and implemented on the basis of primary structural form of the specific soil to be treated, it will reduce project costs by conserving energy and minimizing environmental impacts and disturbance of the soil.
This paper discusses dilatation in direct shear tests. There are 2 types of vertical displacements in direct shear tests. They reflect same dilatation and shrinking behavior of soil as those in triaxial tests. The dilatation is related to the density of soil. The shear stress required for the dilatation increases with the normal stress. The shear displacement for the dilatation is always less than that at the peak shear stress. This paper discusses dilatation in direct shear tests. There are 2 types of vertical displacements in direct shear tests. They reflect same dilatation and shrinking behavior of soil as those in triaxial tests. The dilatation is related to the density of soil. The shear stress required for the dilatation increases with the normal stress. The shear displacement for the dilatation is always less than that at the peak shear stress.
The near-shore and estuarine environments, which are commonly dominated by benthic species, are important factors in changing the sedimentary conditions. This paper presents effects of estuarine species on sediment geological properties including morphologic, penetration strength and grain size of sediments in Diaokou area around the delta of the Yellow River. The relationships among biological effects, the formation of depression, strength heterogeneity of sediment and distribution of mud are also discussed. The near-shore and estuarine environments, which are commonly dominated by benthic species, are important factors in changing the sedimentary conditions. This paper presents effects of estuarine species on sediment geological properties including morphologic, penetration strength and grain size of sediments in Diaokou area around the delta of the Yellow River. The relationships among biological effects, the formation of depression, strength heterogeneity of sediment and distribution of mud are also discussed.
This paper introduces theoretical equations for the relationship between pore pressure increment and principal stress increment based on the concepts of the shear shrinkage coefficient and the modified volumetric compressibility under two kinds of axial symmetry stress conditions and a general three-directional stress condition. The pore pressure coefficients are then derived for these three conditions, and their corresponding relationships are analyzed. This paper introduces theoretical equations for the relationship between pore pressure increment and principal stress increment based on the concepts of the shear shrinkage coefficient and the modified volumetric compressibility under two kinds of axial symmetry stress conditions and a general three-directional stress condition. The pore pressure coefficients are then derived for these three conditions, and their corresponding relationships are analyzed.
For an underground structure, long-term shear strength of the surrounding rock always concerns engineering designers and researchers. In fact, the shear strength tested within a limited time period does not truly reflect its long-term strength. Therefore, it is very important to conversely calculate the long-term shear strength of rock pillar (including the base of pillar) of large ancient underground caverns, based on its shearing failure. In this paper the back analysis of long-term shear strength of no.4-2 rock pillar in the no.4 cavern at Longyou Caverns is presented. In order to further consider distribution of stresses in different parts of the shearing surface, the authors used FLAC-3D in simulation. The results shows. For an underground structure, long-term shear strength of the surrounding rock always concerns engineering designers and researchers. In fact, the shear strength tested within a limited time period does not truly reflect its long-term strength. Therefore, it is very important to conversely calculate the long-term shear strength of rock pillar (including the base of pillar) of large ancient underground caverns, based on its shearing failure. In this paper the back analysis of long-term shear strength of no.4-2 rock pillar in the no.4 cavern at Longyou Caverns is presented. In order to further consider distribution of stresses in different parts of the shearing surface, the authors used FLAC-3D in simulation. The results shows.
Based on the characteristics of surface geological hazards caused by the 1933 earthquake in the Diexi earthquake area upstream of the Mingjiang river, the authors conducted a systematic analysis of the distribution characteristics of slope deformation-failure in the Diexi high earthquake intensity area. Four types of slope deformation-failures were observed in the Diexi area. Mechanisms of slope deformation-failures were then developed based on the relationship between initiation of earthquake and stress fields in the Diexi area. Different types of slope deformation-failures fully reflect various impacts of the earthquake at different locations. It is concluded that the endogentic geological process controls the occurrence of the epigenetic geological disasters. Based on the characteristics of surface geological hazards caused by the 1933 earthquake in the Diexi earthquake area upstream of the Mingjiang river, the authors conducted a systematic analysis of the distribution characteristics of slope deformation-failure in the Diexi high earthquake intensity area. Four types of slope deformation-failures were observed in the Diexi area. Mechanisms of slope deformation-failures were then developed based on the relationship between initiation of earthquake and stress fields in the Diexi area. Different types of slope deformation-failures fully reflect various impacts of the earthquake at different locations. It is concluded that the endogentic geological process controls the occurrence of the epigenetic geological disasters.
Rock-avalanches have often occurred in the monsoon season during the months of July and August in the Xinlongkou region on the Kuitun River. However, the latest avalanche took place in January. To explore the causes for the high frequency of occurrences of rock-avalanches in that area, the authors assess different factors such as regional geological conditions, seismic activities, topography, climate and rainfall indexes. Among them, the fragile geological conditions resulted from long historical tectonic movements attributed to seismic activities and favorable climate conditions have triggered rock avalanches in the area. However, frequent thawing and freezing of snow is an extremely critical inducement for the occurrence of avalanches in winter. In the latest episode, the temperature was abnormally high at noon, and it dropped very quickly at night during that specific winter. High temperature allows snow to thaw and penetrate into cracks during daytime, and freeze and consequently expand in volume at night, which in turn triggered the avalanche. Therefore, the thawing and freezing of snow is a very important factor that should be considered in assessment of rock avalanche for some special areas. This paper also assesses the probability of reoccurrence and scale of avalanche events in the region. Rock-avalanches have often occurred in the monsoon season during the months of July and August in the Xinlongkou region on the Kuitun River. However, the latest avalanche took place in January. To explore the causes for the high frequency of occurrences of rock-avalanches in that area, the authors assess different factors such as regional geological conditions, seismic activities, topography, climate and rainfall indexes. Among them, the fragile geological conditions resulted from long historical tectonic movements attributed to seismic activities and favorable climate conditions have triggered rock avalanches in the area. However, frequent thawing and freezing of snow is an extremely critical inducement for the occurrence of avalanches in winter. In the latest episode, the temperature was abnormally high at noon, and it dropped very quickly at night during that specific winter. High temperature allows snow to thaw and penetrate into cracks during daytime, and freeze and consequently expand in volume at night, which in turn triggered the avalanche. Therefore, the thawing and freezing of snow is a very important factor that should be considered in assessment of rock avalanche for some special areas. This paper also assesses the probability of reoccurrence and scale of avalanche events in the region.
This paper presents concepts and classifications of the soil-like slope based on field investigations and theoretical analyses. Several failure modes of the soil-like slope and their mechanisms are then discussed in this paper. This paper presents concepts and classifications of the soil-like slope based on field investigations and theoretical analyses. Several failure modes of the soil-like slope and their mechanisms are then discussed in this paper.
Based on the probability distribution of the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock, the authors present a parallel-pole model of statistical damage to simulate the brittle rock. The calculated stress-strain relationship based on the statistic damage matches well with test results. The parallel-pole model was then used to simulate the surrounding rockmass of a tunnel. The damage variables were derived for different stress conditions. From the concept of statistic damage, the damage variables represent probability of rockbursting. Based on the probability distribution of the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock, the authors present a parallel-pole model of statistical damage to simulate the brittle rock. The calculated stress-strain relationship based on the statistic damage matches well with test results. The parallel-pole model was then used to simulate the surrounding rockmass of a tunnel. The damage variables were derived for different stress conditions. From the concept of statistic damage, the damage variables represent probability of rockbursting.
The SMR system for classification of slope rock masses is briefly introduced and applied in two representative wedge sliding red rock slopes to the stability of macroscopical evaluation. In the course of evaluation,great importance should be attached to predominant structural planes that dominate the slope failure, and these predominant structural planes shoud be taken as dominating component in structural plane evaluctin in the SMR system, which would lead to a good SMR consistent with the fact of slope failure. The effect of in-situ stress is analysed qualitatively, and the result indicates that the SMR system should be applied very carefully in high in-situ stress area. The SMR system for classification of slope rock masses is briefly introduced and applied in two representative wedge sliding red rock slopes to the stability of macroscopical evaluation. In the course of evaluation,great importance should be attached to predominant structural planes that dominate the slope failure, and these predominant structural planes shoud be taken as dominating component in structural plane evaluctin in the SMR system, which would lead to a good SMR consistent with the fact of slope failure. The effect of in-situ stress is analysed qualitatively, and the result indicates that the SMR system should be applied very carefully in high in-situ stress area.
This paper introduced a new method for determining the bearing capacity of foundation soil using the flat dilatometer test (DMT). By comparing a number of DMT data with parameters of lab tests, cone penetration tests and vane shear tests from several magnitude projects in Shanghai, the authors develop empirical formulae for calculating the bearing capacity of foundation soil from the DMT and assess their accuracy. This paper introduced a new method for determining the bearing capacity of foundation soil using the flat dilatometer test (DMT). By comparing a number of DMT data with parameters of lab tests, cone penetration tests and vane shear tests from several magnitude projects in Shanghai, the authors develop empirical formulae for calculating the bearing capacity of foundation soil from the DMT and assess their accuracy.
In this paper, the authors first review advances in research of anti-liquefaction mechanism, assessment methods for anti-liquefaction and dynamic analysis of stone column composite foundation. Past research focuses on the drainage effectiveness and densification effectiveness of stone columns. However, not enough attention has been paid to the horizontal shear stress introduced by stone columns in previous studies. The assessment method for anti-liquefaction of the stone column composite foundation should also be further emphasized. Dynamic analysis is still based on the visco-elastic theory. Therefore, elastic-plastic and visco-elastic-plastic effective stress dynamic analyses should be enhanced. In this paper, the authors first review advances in research of anti-liquefaction mechanism, assessment methods for anti-liquefaction and dynamic analysis of stone column composite foundation. Past research focuses on the drainage effectiveness and densification effectiveness of stone columns. However, not enough attention has been paid to the horizontal shear stress introduced by stone columns in previous studies. The assessment method for anti-liquefaction of the stone column composite foundation should also be further emphasized. Dynamic analysis is still based on the visco-elastic theory. Therefore, elastic-plastic and visco-elastic-plastic effective stress dynamic analyses should be enhanced.
Static load tests were carried out with the self-balanced test method on four bored piles of which two use the U-tube base grouting technique, for the second stage of the north bridge approach at the Sutong Yangtze River Bridge. The test results of the pile-tip bearing capacity are about 5% to 25% smaller than the calculation results from the standard. The critical displacements of un-grouted piles are 16 mm and 38 mm respectively, which are larger than those of the grouted piles: 12 mm and 21 mm respectively. The pile-tip bearing capacity for the grouted piles is 2.46 to 3.32 times of that of the un-grouted ones, or 2.46 to 2.50 times of the calculated value from the standard. After grouting, ratios of the pile-tip bearing capacity over total capacity increase from 14.42%15.39% to 22.83%27.22%. The shaft resistances are also affected by grouting. The apparent affecting zone ranges from 14.27 m to 19.12 m above the pile tip with reduced critical displacements. Static load tests were carried out with the self-balanced test method on four bored piles of which two use the U-tube base grouting technique, for the second stage of the north bridge approach at the Sutong Yangtze River Bridge. The test results of the pile-tip bearing capacity are about 5% to 25% smaller than the calculation results from the standard. The critical displacements of un-grouted piles are 16 mm and 38 mm respectively, which are larger than those of the grouted piles: 12 mm and 21 mm respectively. The pile-tip bearing capacity for the grouted piles is 2.46 to 3.32 times of that of the un-grouted ones, or 2.46 to 2.50 times of the calculated value from the standard. After grouting, ratios of the pile-tip bearing capacity over total capacity increase from 14.42%15.39% to 22.83%27.22%. The shaft resistances are also affected by grouting. The apparent affecting zone ranges from 14.27 m to 19.12 m above the pile tip with reduced critical displacements.
This paper presents experimental shearing and swelling results of the modified expansive clay with different water contents and lime (cement) content. The influence of the water content and the lime (cement) content on the shearing strength and swelling capacity are evaluated according to the experimental results. The optimal water content and lime content are then obtained. The authors also provide guidelines for modification of expansive clay. This paper presents experimental shearing and swelling results of the modified expansive clay with different water contents and lime (cement) content. The influence of the water content and the lime (cement) content on the shearing strength and swelling capacity are evaluated according to the experimental results. The optimal water content and lime content are then obtained. The authors also provide guidelines for modification of expansive clay.
Based on a vertical static loading test for supper-longhole bored pile in loess of Xi,an, the paper discusses the bearing capacity behavior and load-transfer mechanism of the super-longhole bored pile in loess. The transferring law of axial force and impacts of lateral friction resistance on the super-longhole pile in loess are important topics in development of theories and application. Based on a vertical static loading test for supper-longhole bored pile in loess of Xi,an, the paper discusses the bearing capacity behavior and load-transfer mechanism of the super-longhole bored pile in loess. The transferring law of axial force and impacts of lateral friction resistance on the super-longhole pile in loess are important topics in development of theories and application.
Using the FEM with a plane deformation, the authors evaluate the settlement and deformation characteristics of an embankment foundation based on the Biot,s consolidation theory. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on some factors, such as construction technique and embankment cross-section parameters. Research results can provide reliable and rigorous guidelines for the design and construction in infrastructure development. Using the FEM with a plane deformation, the authors evaluate the settlement and deformation characteristics of an embankment foundation based on the Biot,s consolidation theory. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on some factors, such as construction technique and embankment cross-section parameters. Research results can provide reliable and rigorous guidelines for the design and construction in infrastructure development.
Using the MARC program, the authors analyze effects of soil parameters, such as cohesion, frictional coefficient, and elastic modulus, on the bearing performance of a large diameter hollow pile. The result shows that the elastic modulus is a controlling factor. The paper also evaluates the influence of the underlying soil,s modulus on the S e (the ratio of pile end settlement to pile top settlement) and the axial stresses. A close matching between the emulation results with the actual test data assures that the model is appropriate for analysis. Using the MARC program, the authors analyze effects of soil parameters, such as cohesion, frictional coefficient, and elastic modulus, on the bearing performance of a large diameter hollow pile. The result shows that the elastic modulus is a controlling factor. The paper also evaluates the influence of the underlying soil,s modulus on the S e (the ratio of pile end settlement to pile top settlement) and the axial stresses. A close matching between the emulation results with the actual test data assures that the model is appropriate for analysis.
Preloading with vertical drains is an effective treatment method for a soft clay foundation. Existing analytical solutions and numerical simulation based on Terzaghi and Biot,s theories are complicated for settlement assessment. This paper presents a simplified method for settlement assessment by adjusting permeability coefficient based on equivalence of consolidation degree, and then treating the soft clay foundation with vertical drains as a homogeneous stratified foundation. A case study was used to exam applicability of the method. The comparison between the simulated results with FEM and observed deformation shows a good matching. The presented method can provide a simple and practical assessment of settlement for a soft clay foundation treatment with vertical drains. Preloading with vertical drains is an effective treatment method for a soft clay foundation. Existing analytical solutions and numerical simulation based on Terzaghi and Biot,s theories are complicated for settlement assessment. This paper presents a simplified method for settlement assessment by adjusting permeability coefficient based on equivalence of consolidation degree, and then treating the soft clay foundation with vertical drains as a homogeneous stratified foundation. A case study was used to exam applicability of the method. The comparison between the simulated results with FEM and observed deformation shows a good matching. The presented method can provide a simple and practical assessment of settlement for a soft clay foundation treatment with vertical drains.
The grey correlation analysis based on the norm concept provides a better approximation than that based on average values. In this paper, the grey correlation analysis of the norm is used to determine controlling factors that affect the unit grouting absorption capacity in the grouting reinforcement project. Case study results indicate that this method provides an easy, quick and accurate assessment of factor weights affecting the unit grouting absorption capacity. The grey correlation analysis based on the norm concept provides a better approximation than that based on average values. In this paper, the grey correlation analysis of the norm is used to determine controlling factors that affect the unit grouting absorption capacity in the grouting reinforcement project. Case study results indicate that this method provides an easy, quick and accurate assessment of factor weights affecting the unit grouting absorption capacity.