Volume 21 Issue 1
Feb.  2013
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
XU Chong, XU Xiwei, WU Xiyan, DAI Fuchu, YAO Xin, YAO Qi. 2013: DETAILED CATALOG OF LANDSLIDES TRIGGERED BY THE 2008 WENCHUAN EARTHQUAKE AND STATISTICAL ANALYSES OF THEIR SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION. JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING GEOLOGY, 21(1): 25-44.
Citation: XU Chong, XU Xiwei, WU Xiyan, DAI Fuchu, YAO Xin, YAO Qi. 2013: DETAILED CATALOG OF LANDSLIDES TRIGGERED BY THE 2008 WENCHUAN EARTHQUAKE AND STATISTICAL ANALYSES OF THEIR SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION. JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING GEOLOGY, 21(1): 25-44.

DETAILED CATALOG OF LANDSLIDES TRIGGERED BY THE 2008 WENCHUAN EARTHQUAKE AND STATISTICAL ANALYSES OF THEIR SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION

Funds:

  • Received Date: 2012-02-15
  • Rev Recd Date: 2012-12-22
  • Publish Date: 2013-02-25
  • The latest research results indicate that the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake(MS 8.0)triggered more than 197000 landslides. Base on Geographic Information Systems(GIS) and remote sensing technologies, three(nearly) complete landslide catalogs are constructed firstly. The three catalogs are corresponds to respective landslide polygons, landside centroid points, and landslide top points respectively. These catalogs indicate that there were 197481 landslides triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake throughout an area of about 110000km2.These landslides are delineated as respective individual solid polygons, landslide central dots, and landslide top dots using visual interpretation of high resolution aerial photographs and satellite images taken pre-and post-earthquake, verified by selected field checking. These landslides cover a total area of about 1160km2.An area covers about 44031km2 is selected as study area. There are 196007 landslides. They have a total area of 1150.6km2 occurred in the study area. This landslide catalog is the most detailed and complete landslide inventory related with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. It is also the largest landslide inventory record related to a single earthquake event. Subsequently, spatial distribution statistical analysis of landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake are carried out in the study area. Base on the inventories of landslide polygons and landslide centroid points, two density maps, named landslide area density map and landslide point density map were constructed, respectively. Both the two landslide density maps show that landslide activities primarily concentrate along the Yingxiu-Beichuan co-seismic surface fault-rupture, and most of the landslides occurred on the hanging wall. The highest landslide density areas appear in the northwest direction areas, on the hanging wall, of a section of the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault(from the Yingxiu Town to the Beichuan County).Those high intensive landslide areas correspond to high deformation areas during the earthquake. So, it can be concluded that the earthquake triggered landslides is very strongly affected by co-seismic deformation. Furthermore, correlations of landslide occurrence with seismic parameters, geologic and topographic conditions are analyzed using the three landslide catalogs. Statistical analysis of these landslides spatial distribution using (a) landslide area percentage(LAP),defined as the percentage of the area affected by the landslides,(b) landslide centroid number density(LCND),defined as the number of landslide centroid per square kilometer, and (c) landslide top number density(LTND),defined as the number of landslide top point per square kilometer, is carried out to determine how the occurrence of landslides correlates with elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, slope position, slope curvature, lithology, distance from epicenter, seismic intensity, distance from the Yingxiu-Beichuan surface fault-rupture, peak ground acceleration(PGA).It is observed that the LAP,LCND, and LTND values have positive correlations with slope angle, PGA, and seismic intensity, and have negative correlations with distance from epicenter, and distance from the Yingxiu-Beichuan surface fault-rupture. More slope curvature close to zero, more difficult to landslide occurrence. The highest values of one LAP and two LND appear at range from 1200m to 3000m in elevation. The landslides have preferred orientations, dominated by the eastern, southeastern, and southern directions. The sandstone, siltstone(Z) and granitic rocks have more concentrated landslides. No apparent correlations were found between LAP,two LND values and slope position. Statistical results also show that differences between LCND and LTND is very small for earthquake and geologic parameters, rather more difference relate with topographic parameters. Some qualitative comparisons between the results in this paper and others published papers are carried out finally. There would be obvious differences of statistical results related to correlations of landsides and elevation, lithology, distance from the epicenter, distance from the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault from the present results and in other publications. In addition to those parameters, the statistical result from other factors including slope angle and slope aspect show similar tendency. So, it can be concluded that a complete, detailed and accurate landslide catalog is an essential part for seismic landslide hazard analyses and spatial distribution statistical analyses. Otherwise, parts of results obtained from analyzing uncompleted landslide distribution data would be controversial. It is rather necessary and important to construct complete landslide catalogs for seismic landslide spatial distribution statistical quantitative analyses, hazard assessment, and landscape evolution controlled by earthquake triggered landslides in earthquake struck area, et al.
  • loading
  • [1] 许冲, 戴福初,陈剑,涂新斌,许领,李维朝,田伟,曹琰波,姚鑫.汶川MS8.0地震重灾区次生地质灾害遥感精细解译[J].遥感学报, 2009, 13 (4): 745~762.

    Xu Chong, Dai Fuchu, Chen Jian, Tu Xinbin, Xu Ling, Li Weichao, Tian Wei, Cao Yanbo, Yao Xin. Identification and analysis of secondary geological hazards triggered by a magnitude 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake. Journal of Remote Sensing, 2009, 13 (4): 745~762.

    [2] 许冲, 戴福初,姚鑫.汶川地震诱发滑坡灾害的数量与面积[J].科技导报, 2009, 27 (11): 79~81.

    Xu Chong, Dai Fuchu, Yao Xin. Incidence number and affected area of Wenchuan Earthquake-induced landslides. Science & Technology Review, 2009, 27 (11): 79~81.

    [3] Dai F C,Xu C,Yao X,Xu L,Tu X B,Gong Q M.Spatial distribution of landslides triggered by the 2008 MS 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 2011, 40 (4): 883~895.

    [4] Gorum T,Fan X M,van Westen C J,Huang R Q,Xu Q,Tang C,Wang G H.Distribution pattern of earthquake-induced landslides triggered by the 12May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Geomorphology, 2011, 133 (3~4): 152~167.

    [5] Huang R Q,Li W L.Analysis of the geo-hazards triggered by the 12May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 2009, 68 (3): 363~371.

    [6] Parker R N,Densmore A L,Rosser N J,de Michele M,Li Y,Huang R Q,Whadcoat S,Petley D N.Mass wasting triggered by 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is greater than orogenic growth. Nature Geoscience, 2011, 4 (7): 449~452.

    [7] Chigira M,Wu X Y,Inokuchi T,Wang G H.Landslides induced by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan, China. Geomorphology, 2010, 118 (3~4): 225~238.

    [8] Yin J H,Chen J,Xu X W,Wang X L,Zheng Y G.The characteristics of the landslides triggered by the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake from Anxian to Beichuan. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 2010, 37 (5~6): 452~459.

    [9] Qi S W,Xu Q,Lan H X,Zhang B,Liu J Y.Spatial distribution analysis of landslides triggered by 2008.5.12 Wenchuan earthquake, China. Engineering Geology, 2010, 116 (1~2): 95~108.

    [10] Li Z,Chen Q,Zhou J M,Tian B S.Analysis of synthetic aperture radar image characteristics for seismic disasters in the Wenchuan earthquake. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 2009, 3(031685)

    [11] Han Y S,Liu H J,Cui P,Su F H,Du D S.Hazard assessment on secondary mountain-hazards triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 2009, 3(031645)

    [12] Di B F,Zeng H J,Zhang M H,Ustin S L,Tang Y,Wang Z Y,Chen N S,Zhang B.Quantifying the spatial distribution of soil mass wasting processes after the 2008 earthquake in Wenchuan, China: A case study of the Longmenshan area. Remote Sensing of Environment, 2010, 114 (4): 761~771.

    [13] Chen J P,Li J F,Qin X W,Dong Q J,Sun Y.RS and GIS-based statistical analysis of secondary geological disasters after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Acta Geologica Sinica, 2009, 83 (4): 776~785.

    [14] Ren Z K,Lin A M.Co-seismic landslides induced by the 2008 Wenchuan magnitude 8.0 Earthquake, as revealed by ALOS PRISM and AVNIR2 imagery data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 2010, 31 (13): 3479~3493.

    [15] Zhang W J,Lin J Y,Peng J,Lu Q F.Estimating Wenchuan earthquake induced landslides based on remote sensing. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 2010, 31 (13): 3495~3508.

    [16] 许冲, 戴福初,姚鑫,陈剑,涂新斌,曹琰波,肖建章.基于GIS的汶川地震滑坡灾害影响因子确定性系数分析[J].岩石力学与工程学报, 2010, 29 (S1): 2972~2981.

    Xu Chong, Dai Fuchu, Yao Xin, Chen Jian, Tu Xinbin, Cao Yanbo, Xiao Jianzhang. GIS based certainty factor analysis of landslide triggering factors in Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008,Sichuan, China. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 2010, 29 (S1): 2972~2981.

    [17] 许冲, 戴福初,肖建章. "5·12" 汶川地震诱发滑坡特征参数统计分析[J].自然灾害学报, 2011, 20 (4): 147~153.

    Xu Chong, Dai Fuchu, Xiao Jianzhang. Statistical analysis of the characteristic parameters of landslides triggered by the May 12, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Journal of Natural Disasters, 2011, 20 (4): 147~153.

    [18] 许冲, 戴福初,姚鑫,陈剑,涂新斌,肖建章,孙瑜.汶川地震滑坡在两个典型区域内的分布研究[J].中国科学院研究生院学报, 2010, 27 (5): 621~631.

    Xu Chong, Dai Fuchu, Yao Xin, Chen Jian, Tu Xinbin, Xiao Jianzhang, Sun Yu. Study on the distribution of landslides triggered by the May 12, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in two square typical regions. Journal of the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2010, 27 (5): 621~631.

    [19] Xu C,Xu X W.Comment on "Spatial distribution analysis of landslides triggered by 2008.5.12 Wenchuan earthquake, China" by Shengwen Qi, Qiang Xu, Hengxing Lan, Bing Zhang, Jianyou Liu .Engineering Geology, 2012, 133~134:40~42.

    [20] Xu C,Xu X W.Controlling parameter analyses and hazard mapping for earthquake triggered-landslides: An example from a square region in Beichuan county, Sichuan province, China. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 2012,Online.doi: 10.1007/s12517-012-0646-y.

    [21] 许冲, 戴福初,姚鑫,陈剑,涂新斌,孙瑜,王志一.GIS支持下基于层次分析法的汶川地震区滑坡易发性评价[J].岩石力学与工程学报, 2009, 28 (S2): 3978~3985.

    Xu Chong, Dai Fuchu, Yao Xin, Chen Jian, Tu Xinbin, Sun Yu, Wang Zhiyi. GIS-based landslide susceptibility assessment using analytical hierarchy process(AHP) for May 12, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake region. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 2009, 28 (S2): 3978~3985.

    [22] 许冲, 戴福初,姚鑫,赵洲,肖建章.基于GIS与确定性系数分析方法的汶川地震滑坡易发性评价[J].工程地质学报, 2010, 18 (1): 15~26.

    Xu Chong, Dai Fuchu, Yao Xin, Zhao Zhou, Xiao Jianzhang. Study on Wenchuan earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility evaluation based on GIS platform and certainty factor analysis method. Journal of Engineering Geology, 2010, 18 (1): 15~26.

    [23] Xu C,Dai F C,Xu X W,Lee Y H.GIS-based support vector machine modeling of earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility in the Jianjiang river watershed, China. Geomorphology, 2012, 145~ 146:70~80.

    [24] Xu C,Xu X W,Dai F C,Saraf A K.Comparison of different models for susceptibility mapping of earthquake triggered landslides related with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. Computers & Geosciences, 2012, 46:317~329.

    [25] Xu C,Xu X W,Dai F C,Xiao J Z,Tan X B,Yuan R M.Landslide hazard mapping using GIS and weight of evidence model in Qingshui river watershed of 2008 Wenchuan earthquake struck region. Journal of Earth Science, 2012, 23 (1): 97~120.

    [26] 许冲, 戴福初,徐锡伟.基于GIS平台与证据权的地震滑坡易发性评价[J].地球科学-中国地质大学学报, 2011, 36 (6): 1155~1164.

    Xu Chong, Dai Fuchu, Xu Xiwei. Earthquake triggered landslide susceptibility evaluation based on GIS platform and weight- of -eidence modeling. Earth Science—Journal of China University of Geosciences, 2011, 36 (6): 1155~1164.

    [27] Harp E L,Keefer D K,Sato H P,Yagi H.Landslide inventories: the essential part of seismic landslide hazard analyses. Engineering Geology, 2011, 122 (1~2): 9~21.

    [28] 许冲, 戴福初,徐锡伟.汶川地震滑坡灾害研究综述[J].地质论评, 2010, 56 (6): 860~874.

    Xu Chong, Dai Fuchu, Xu Xiwei. Wenchuan earthquake-induced landslides: An overview. Geological Review, 2010, 56 (6): 860~874.

    [29] Keefer D K.Landslides caused by earthquakes. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 1984, 95 (4): 406~421.

    [30] Rodriguez CE,Bommer JJ,Chandler RJ.Earthquake-induced landslides: 1980-1997.Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 1999, 18 (5): 325~346.

    [31] 殷跃平, 张永双,马寅生,胡道功,张作辰.青海玉树MS 7.1级地震地质灾害主要特征[J].工程地质学报, 2010, 18 (3): 289~296.

    Yin Yueping, Zhang Yongshuang, Ma Yinsheng, Hu Daogong, Zhang Zuochen. Research on major characteristics of geohazards induced by the Yushu MS 7.1 earthquake. Journal of Engineering Geology, 2010, 18 (3): 289~296.

    [32] 许冲, 徐锡伟,于贵华.玉树地震滑坡分布调查及其特征与形成机制[J].地震地质, 2012, 34 (1): 47~62.

    Xu Chong, Xu Xiwei, Yu Guihua. Study on the characteristics, mechanism, and spatial distribution of Yushu earthquake triggered landslides. Seismology and Geology, 2012, 34 (1): 47~62.

    [33] 许冲, 徐锡伟,戴福初,王彦颖.2010年4月14日玉树地震滑坡空间分布与控制变量分析[J].工程地质学报, 2011, 19 (4): 505~510.

    Xu Chong, Xu Xiwei, Dai Fuchu, Wang Yanying. Analysis of spatial distribution and controlling parameters of landslides triggered by the April 14, 2010 Yushu earthquake. Journal of Engineering Geology, 2011, 19 (4): 505~510.

    [34] 许冲, 徐锡伟,于贵华,吴熙彦.玉树地震滑坡影响因子敏感性分析[J].科技导报, 2012, 30 (1): 18~24.

    Xu Chong, Xu Xiwei, Yu Guihua, Wu Xiyan. Susceptibility analysis of impact factors of landslides triggered by Yushu earthquake. Science & Technology Review, 2012, 30 (1): 18~24.

    [35] 许冲, 徐锡伟.走滑断裂型地震诱发的滑坡在断裂两盘的空间分布差异[J].地质通报, 2012, 31 (4): 532~540.

    Xu Chong, Xu Xiwei. Spatial distribution difference of landslides triggered by slipping-fault type earthquake on two sides of the fault. Geological Bulletin of China, 2012, 31 (4): 532~540.

    [36] Xu C,Xu X W,Yu G H.Landslides triggered by slipping-fault-generated earthquake on a plateau: An example of the 14 April 2010,MS 7.1,Yushu, China earthquake. Landslides, 2012,Online.doi: 10.1007/s10346-012-0340-x.

    [37] 许冲, 徐锡伟.基于GIS与ANN模型的地震滑坡易发性区划[J].地质科技情报, 2012, 31 (3): 116~121.

    Xu Chong, Xu Xiwei. GIS and ANN model for earthquake triggered landslides susceptibility zonation. Geological Science and Technology Information, 2012, 31 (3): 116~121.

    [38] 许冲, 徐锡伟.逻辑回归模型在玉树地震滑坡危险性评价中的应用与检验[J].工程地质学报,2012, 20 (3): 326~333.

    Xu Chong, Xu Xiwei. Application of logistic regression model and its validation for Yushu earthquake triggered landslide hazard mapping. Journal of Engineering Geology,2012, 20 (3): 326~333.

    [39] 许冲. 青海玉树"2010-4-14"地震发震构造与地震滑坡危险性初步评价[J].工程地质计算机应用, 2012,(1): 1~14.

    Xu Chong. Seismogenic structure of Yushu earthquake and preliminary earthquake-induced landslide hazard evaluation. Engineering Geological Computer Applications, 2012,(1): 1~14.

    [40] Xu C,Xu X W,Lee Y H,Tan X B,Yu G H,Dai F C.The 2010 Yushu earthquake triggered landslide hazard mapping using GIS and weight of evidence modeling. Environmental Earth Sciences, 2012, 66 (6): 1603~1616.

    [41] 许冲, 徐锡伟.基于不同核函数的2010年玉树地震滑坡空间预测模型研究[J].地球物理学报, 2012, 55 (9): 2994~3005.

    Xu Chong, Xu Xiwei. The 2010 Yushu earthquake triggered landslides spatial prediction models based on several kernel function types. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 2012, 55 (9): 2994~3005.

    [42] Harp E L,Jibson R W,Dart R L.The effect of complex fault rupture on the distribution of landslides triggered by the 12 January 2010,Haiti earthquake. In: Proceedings of the Second World Landslide Forum, Rome: October 3-7, 2011, 1~5.

    [43] 许冲, 徐锡伟.俯冲带地区压扭断裂型地震触发滑坡及其剥蚀厚度空间分布规律分析[J].工程地质学报, 2012, 20 (5): 732~744.

    Xu Chong, Xu Xiwei. Spatial distribution of seismic landslides and their erosion thickness relate with a transpressional fault caused earthquake of subduction zone. Journal of Engineering Geology, 2012, 20 (5): 732~744.

    [44] 许冲, 徐锡伟.海地地震滑坡详细编录及空间分布分析 .第九届全国工程地质大会摘要.专题6.重大地质灾害风险评价与防控(摘要编号6- 05) 2012-10,中国,青岛,2012, 228.

    Xu Chong, Xu Xiwei. Detailed inventory of landslides triggered by the Haiti earthquake and its spatial distribution analyses. The 9th National Engineering Geological Congress Abstracts. Theme 6: Risk Assessment, Prevention, and Control of Serious Geological Disasters. Abstract No.6-05, 2012-10,Qingdao, China,2012,228.

    [45] 许冲, 徐锡伟.海地触发地震滑坡初步研究 .中国地球物理学会第二十七届年会论文集, 2011, 125.

    Xu Chong, Xu Xiwei. Inventory of landslides trigger by the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Chinese Geophysics Society, the 27th Annual Proceedings, 2011,125.

    [46] Xu C,Xu X W,Yu G H.Earthquake triggered landslide hazard mapping and validation related with the 2010 Port-au-Prince, Haiti earthquake. Disaster Advances, 2012, 5 (4): 1297~1304.

    [47] Das J D,Saraf A K,Panda S.Satellite data in a rapid analysis of Kashmir earthquake(October 2005)triggered landslide pattern and river water turbidity in and around the epicentral region. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 2007, 28 (8): 1835~1842.

    [48] Kamp U,Growley B J,Khattak G A,Owen L A.GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping for the 2005 Kashmir earthquake region. Geomorphology, 2008, 101 (4): 631~642.

    [49] Sato H P,Hasegawa H,Fujiwara S,Tobita M,Koarai M,Une H,Iwahashi J.Interpretation of landslide distribution triggered by the 2005 Northern Pakistan earthquake using SPOT 5 imagery. Landslides, 2007, 4 (2): 113~122.

    [50] Owen L A,Kamp U,Khattak G A,Harp E L,Keefer D K,Bauer M A.Landslides triggered by the 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Geomorphology, 2008, 94 (1~2): 1~9.

    [51] Wang H B,Sassa K,Xu W Y.Analysis of a spatial distribution of landslides triggered by the 2004 Chuetsu earthquakes of Niigata prefecture, Japan. Natural Hazards, 2007, 41 (1): 43~60.

    [52] Yamagishi H,Iwahashi J.Comparison between the two triggered landslides in Mid-Niigata, Japan by July 13 heavy rainfall and October 23 intensive earthquakes in 2004.Landslides, 2007, 4 (4): 389~397.

    [53] Chigira M,Yagi H.Geological and geomorphological characteristics of landslides triggered by the 2004 Mid Niigta prefecture earthquake in Japan. Engineering Geology, 2006, 82 (4): 202~221.

    [54] Sato H P,Sekiguchi T,Kojiroi R,Suzuki Y,Lida M.Overlaying landslides distribution on the earthquake source, geological and topographical data: the Mid Niigata prefecture earthquake in 2004,Japan. Landslides, 2005, 2 (2): 143~152.

    [55] Liao H W,Lee C T.Landslides triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake.2000,ACRS 2000,http: //www.geospatialworld.net/index.php?option=com_content & view=article&id=16097:landslides-triggered-by-the-chi-chi-earthquake & catid=150:natural-hazard-management-landslide-soil-erosion.

    [56] Liao C,Liao H,Lee C.Statistical Analysis of factors affecting landslides triggered by the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting, 2002,abstract #H12D-0951.

    [57] Weissel J K,Stark C P.Landslides triggered by the 1999 MW 7.6 Chi Chi Earthquake in Taiwan and their relationship to topography. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2001.IGARSS '01.IEEE 2001 International. 2:759~761.

    [58] Wang W N,Nakamura H,Tsuchiya S,Chen C C.Distributions of landslides triggered by the Chi-chi earthquake in central Taiwan on September 21, 1999.Landslides-Journal of the Japan Landslide Society, 2002, 38 (4): 18~26.

    [59] Wang W N,Wu H L,Nakamura H,Wu S C,Ouyang S,Yu M F.Mass movements caused by recent tectonic activity: the 1999 Chi-chi earthquake in central Taiwan. The Island Arc, 2003, 12 (4): 325~334.

    [60] Lin ML,Tung CC.A GIS-based potential analysis of the landslides induced by the Chi-Chi earthquake. Engineering Geology, 2004, 71 (1~2): 63~77.

    [61] Lee C T,Huang C C,Lee J F,Pan K L,Lin M L,Dong J J.Statistical approach to earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility. Engineering Geology, 2008, 100 (1~2): 43~58.

    [62] Khazai B,Sitar N.Evaluation of factors controlling earthquake-induced landslides caused by Chi-Chi earthquake and comparison with the Northridge and Loma Prieta events. Engineering Geology, 2004, 71 (1~2): 79~95.

    [63] Harp E L,Jibson R W.Inventory of Landslides triggered by the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. USGS, 1995,http: //geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov/metadata/open-file/95-213/metadata.faq.html.

    [64] Harp E L,Jibson R W.Landslides triggered by the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. Bulletin of the Seimological Society of America, 1996, 86 (1B): S319~S332.

    [65] Jibson R W,Harp E L.Landslides triggered by the Northridge earthquake. Earthquake & Volcanoes, 1994, 25 (1): 31~41.

    [66] Parise M,Jibson R W.A seismic landslide susceptibility rating of geologic units based on analysis of characteristics of landslides triggered by the 17 January, 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. Engineering Geology, 2000, 58 (3~4): 251~270.

    [67] Marzorati S,Luzi L,De Amicis M.Rock falls induced by earthquakes: A statistical approach. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2002, 22 (7): 565~577.

    [68] Fukuoka H,Sassa K,Scarascia-Mugnozza G.Distribution of landslides triggered by the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake and long runout mechanism of the Takarazuka Golf Course landslide. Journal of Physics of the Earth, 1997, 45 (2): 83~90.

    [69] Keefer D K.Statistical analysis of an earthquake-induced landslide distribution—The 1989 Loma Prieta, California event. Engineering Geology, 2000, 58 (3~4): 231~249.

    [70] Xu Z Q,Ji S C,Li H B,Hou L W,Fu X F,Cai Z H.Uplift of the Longmen Shan range and the Wenchuan earthquake. Episodes, 2008, 31 (3): 291~301.

    [71] 徐锡伟, 闻学泽,叶建青,马保起,陈杰,周荣军,何宏林,田勤俭,何玉林,王志才,孙昭民,冯希杰,于贵华,陈立春,陈桂华,于慎鄂,冉勇康,李细光,李陈侠,安艳芬.汶川MS 8.0地震地表破裂带及其发震构造[J].地震地质, 2008, 30 (3): 597~629.

    Xu Xiwei, Wen Xueze, Ye Jianqing, Ma Baoqi, Chen Jie, Zhou Rongjun, He Honglin, Tian Qinjian, He Yulin, Wang Zhicai, Sun Zhaomin, Feng Xijie, Yu Guihua, Chen Lichun, Chen Guihua, Yu Shene, Ran Yongkang, Li Xiguang, Li Chenxia, an Yanfen. The MS 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake surface ruptures and its seismogenic structure. Seismology and Geology, 2008, 30 (3): 597~629.

    [72] Xu X W,Wen X Z,Yu G H,Chen G H,Klinger Y,Hubbard J,Shaw J.Coseismic reverse-and oblique-slip surface faulting generated by the 2008 MW 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China. Geology, 2009, 37 (6): 515~518.

    [73] Xu X W,Yu G H,Chen G H,Ran Y K,Li C X,Chen Y G,Chang C P.Parameters of coseismic reverse-and oblique-slip surface ruptures of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, eastern Tibetan Plateau. Acta Geologica Sinica, 2009, 83 (4): 673~684.

    [74] 徐锡伟, 陈桂华,于贵华,孙鑫喆,谭锡斌,陈立春,孙建宝,陈于高,陈文山,张淑萍,李康.5·12汶川地震地表破裂基本参数的再论证及其构造内涵分析[J].地球物理学报, 2010, 53 (10): 2321~2336.

    Xu Xiwei, Chen Guihua, Yu Guihua, Sun Xinze, Tan Xibin, Chen Lichun, Sun Jianbao, Chen Yugau, Chen Wenshan, Zhang Shuping, Li Kang. Reevaluation of surface rupture parameters of the 5·12 Wenchuan earthquake and its tectonic implication for Tibetan uplift. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 2010, 53 (10): 2321~2336.

    [75] 许冲. 汶川地震滑坡详细编录及其与全球其他地震滑坡事件对比[J].科技导报, 2012, 30 (25): 18~26.

    Xu Chong. Detailed inventory of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake triggered landslides and its comparison with global other earthquake events. Science & Technology Review, 2012, 30 (25): 18~26.

    [76] 许冲. 汶川地震滑坡详细编录及其科研与工程意义 .第九届全国工程地质大会摘要.专题5 强震区工程地质与灾后重建(摘要编号5- 03) 2012-10,中国,青岛.2012, 203.

    Xu Chong. Detailed inventory of landslides triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake and its scientific and engineering significance. The 9th National Engineering Geological Congress Abstracts. Theme 5: Engineering Geology of Strong Earthquake District and Reconstruction. Abstract No.5-03, 2012-10,Qingdao, China.2012,203.

    [77] 许冲, 徐锡伟.活断层运动方式对地震滑坡的控制作用 .第九届全国工程地质大会摘要.专题5 强震区工程地质与灾后重建(摘要编号5- 01) 2012-10,中国,青岛.2012,201.

    Xu Chong, Xu Xiwei. Effect of earthquake triggered landslides controlled by active fault movements. The 9th National Engineering Geological Congress Abstracts. Theme 5: Engineering Geology of Strong Earthquake District and Reconstruction. Abstract No.5-01, 2012-10,Qingdao, China.2012,201.

    [78] US Geological Survey,Advanced National Seismic System(ANSS),Shake Map, Global Region, Maps of Ground Shaking and Intensity for Event 2008 yr, Eastern Sichuan, China .2008,http: //earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/shakemap.

    [79] 中国地震局. 汶川8.0级地震烈度分布图 .2008, 2008-08-29.http: //www.cea.gov.cn/manage/html/8a8587881632fa5c0116674a018300cf/_content/08_09/01/1220238314350.html.

    China Earthquake Administration. Seismic Intensity Map of the M8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake.2008,2008-08-29.http://www.cea.gov.cn/manage/html/8a8587881632fa5c0116674a018300cf /_content/08_09/01/1220238314350.html.

    [80] Weiss A D.Topographic position and landforms analysis .2006,http: //www.jennessent.com/downloads/tpi-poster-tnc_18x22.pdf.

    [81] Meunier P,Hovius N,Haines A J.Regional patterns of earthquake-triggered landslides and their relation to ground motion. Geophysical Research Letters, 2007, 34,L20408, 5.

    [82] Meunier,P. ,N.Hovius, Haines A J.Topographic site effects and the location of earthquake induced landslides. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2008, 275 (3~4): 221~232.
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索
    Article views (7282) PDF downloads(1425) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint