2007 Vol. 15, No. S1

论文
The west route of South to North water transfer project is located in SE Qinghai and Nw Sichuan of the northeastem Qinghai-Tibet plateau.It is located at the Bayankela block,Yidun island arc zone and Changdu plate and their junction in geological tectonic units.where landforms are complx,valleys are deeply incised,neotectonic movement is very intense and earthquakes occur frequently, engineering geological conditions are relatively complicated, geological hazards are repeated occurrence in the area.Main geological hazards problems such as earthquake, active faults,high geotemperature damage,freezing,permafrost and freeze injury,bursting of high pressure water and mud,and landslides and debrisflows. Based on the studies of the regional geology and geological hazards in the project of water division,some measures is put forward about these geological hazards problems in the article. The west route of South to North water transfer project is located in SE Qinghai and Nw Sichuan of the northeastem Qinghai-Tibet plateau.It is located at the Bayankela block,Yidun island arc zone and Changdu plate and their junction in geological tectonic units.where landforms are complx,valleys are deeply incised,neotectonic movement is very intense and earthquakes occur frequently, engineering geological conditions are relatively complicated, geological hazards are repeated occurrence in the area.Main geological hazards problems such as earthquake, active faults,high geotemperature damage,freezing,permafrost and freeze injury,bursting of high pressure water and mud,and landslides and debrisflows. Based on the studies of the regional geology and geological hazards in the project of water division,some measures is put forward about these geological hazards problems in the article.
Base on the data of seismic profile, the paper analyses the characteristics of the structures and activities of active faults of Liyuetan and its adjacent area, the Southern South China Sea. Two groups of active faults in NE and NW directions exist in the area. The NE active faults, formed during the extension of the epicontinent of southeastern China in the late Cretaceous and early Paleocene, are mainly exists in coral reef areas of Liyuetan and its adjacnet area. It had intensive activity in late Cretaceous and early Paleocene, and kept active in late Tertiary. It is mainly an expanding-shearing fault and now has medium and weak activity. The NW faults mainly exists in the area near Palawan. It is an extending-shearing and left-slip fault which cuts the basement. It had intensive activity from early Miocene and Pliocene. It is still active in Quaternary but only a fault with weak activity. There are only a few SN faults in this area. The area has records of volcano and few earthquake activities in the history. Base on the data of seismic profile, the paper analyses the characteristics of the structures and activities of active faults of Liyuetan and its adjacent area, the Southern South China Sea. Two groups of active faults in NE and NW directions exist in the area. The NE active faults, formed during the extension of the epicontinent of southeastern China in the late Cretaceous and early Paleocene, are mainly exists in coral reef areas of Liyuetan and its adjacnet area. It had intensive activity in late Cretaceous and early Paleocene, and kept active in late Tertiary. It is mainly an expanding-shearing fault and now has medium and weak activity. The NW faults mainly exists in the area near Palawan. It is an extending-shearing and left-slip fault which cuts the basement. It had intensive activity from early Miocene and Pliocene. It is still active in Quaternary but only a fault with weak activity. There are only a few SN faults in this area. The area has records of volcano and few earthquake activities in the history.
The middle line of South-North water transfer project is a key construction to make water using in safety in the north area of China, especially in Beijing and Tianjin areas, where the tunnels for water transfer on Beijing section is a crucial part of the whole project. Based on a geat deal of field investigation, and the relative data analysis on the tunnels for water transfer on Beijing section, engineering geological conditions of the tunnels are introduced in detail, including Xiganchi Tunnel, Chongqing Tunnel and Xisihuan Tunnel. It is shown that the tunnels are different in terrain, stratum, geological structure and hrdraulic condtions although the three tunnels are in the same area. Also, the major engineering geological problems are discussed and analyzed, and some suggestions and effective measures are proposed. The middle line of South-North water transfer project is a key construction to make water using in safety in the north area of China, especially in Beijing and Tianjin areas, where the tunnels for water transfer on Beijing section is a crucial part of the whole project. Based on a geat deal of field investigation, and the relative data analysis on the tunnels for water transfer on Beijing section, engineering geological conditions of the tunnels are introduced in detail, including Xiganchi Tunnel, Chongqing Tunnel and Xisihuan Tunnel. It is shown that the tunnels are different in terrain, stratum, geological structure and hrdraulic condtions although the three tunnels are in the same area. Also, the major engineering geological problems are discussed and analyzed, and some suggestions and effective measures are proposed.
Based on a case study of Shiwagou landslide, which is located in Liubei Town, Yun county, Shiyan city, the space shape, composition and structure characters, and hydrological geology characters are discussed in detail. The formation mechanism of swelling soil landslide is analyzied, and the composite analysis and prediction evaluation of landslide stability is given by computing. As for the characteristic of Shiwagou landslide, the composite prevention measure of geogrid and drainage project is presented. Based on a case study of Shiwagou landslide, which is located in Liubei Town, Yun county, Shiyan city, the space shape, composition and structure characters, and hydrological geology characters are discussed in detail. The formation mechanism of swelling soil landslide is analyzied, and the composite analysis and prediction evaluation of landslide stability is given by computing. As for the characteristic of Shiwagou landslide, the composite prevention measure of geogrid and drainage project is presented.
The rock type is seriously various in the area of Rongge hydropower station, where the sedimentation environment and geological structure background are complicated. Karstification chips rock mass intensively around the reservoir and at the left bank of the reservoir, which results in a complicated net karst pipes under the ground. Also, there are some classic karst hydraulic phenomena in this area. For example, river recharges groundwater at the end of the reservoir; some large-scale underground rivers and fissures of the riverbed were found. To analyze conditions of the reservoir formation, large-scale tracer detector was employed to monitor frequently changes of tracer dose in water in a large scale day and night, where the tracer dose is a kind of fluorescein treated by anti-adsorption in advance. As for this detector, a precise spectral luminometer of fluorescein (F96C mode) is used to analyze the tracer dose. The detector is the first one that can obtain quantitative results for hydroelectric project. Also, the case study is a good reference for tracer detecting of the similar hydroelectric projects. The rock type is seriously various in the area of Rongge hydropower station, where the sedimentation environment and geological structure background are complicated. Karstification chips rock mass intensively around the reservoir and at the left bank of the reservoir, which results in a complicated net karst pipes under the ground. Also, there are some classic karst hydraulic phenomena in this area. For example, river recharges groundwater at the end of the reservoir; some large-scale underground rivers and fissures of the riverbed were found. To analyze conditions of the reservoir formation, large-scale tracer detector was employed to monitor frequently changes of tracer dose in water in a large scale day and night, where the tracer dose is a kind of fluorescein treated by anti-adsorption in advance. As for this detector, a precise spectral luminometer of fluorescein (F96C mode) is used to analyze the tracer dose. The detector is the first one that can obtain quantitative results for hydroelectric project. Also, the case study is a good reference for tracer detecting of the similar hydroelectric projects.
For hard rocks as granite, rock mass class is mostly associated with discontinuities. This paper presents three case histories of granitic engineering projects in China. Focuses are on distributive features of discontinuities by means of field investigation, stereographic projection, statistic methods of structure and geo-stress. The discontinuity includes faults, joints, veins, contact zone and fissures with distinctive scales and formation. Most commonly occurred are of joints reflecting geo-stress orientation. The most widely used rock mass classification indices RMR, Q, BQ and T systems are compared. By means of interaction matrix, it was found that the interaction coefficient of RMR and BQ is the largest, next is the T values, the last one is the Q value. The results indicate that discontinuity density, orientations and hard rock are of dominant parameters in classification index for site selection and design of tunnelling projects. For hard rocks as granite, rock mass class is mostly associated with discontinuities. This paper presents three case histories of granitic engineering projects in China. Focuses are on distributive features of discontinuities by means of field investigation, stereographic projection, statistic methods of structure and geo-stress. The discontinuity includes faults, joints, veins, contact zone and fissures with distinctive scales and formation. Most commonly occurred are of joints reflecting geo-stress orientation. The most widely used rock mass classification indices RMR, Q, BQ and T systems are compared. By means of interaction matrix, it was found that the interaction coefficient of RMR and BQ is the largest, next is the T values, the last one is the Q value. The results indicate that discontinuity density, orientations and hard rock are of dominant parameters in classification index for site selection and design of tunnelling projects.
Structures, organization of particles, permeability and the hydraulic gradient of the faults in the foundation of nanwan reservoir is important to the safety of nanwan dam. The hydraulic gradient gained from the permeability testing in the site is higher and can not reflect the real hydraulic gradient of the heavily fractured rock. The analysis of engineering geological and hydrological conditions about the foundation of nanwan reservoir is carried out and the computation of the seepage is put forward. The seepage field of the dam is gained from the computation and the datum of long-term observation.The result indicates that the dam is safety. Structures, organization of particles, permeability and the hydraulic gradient of the faults in the foundation of nanwan reservoir is important to the safety of nanwan dam. The hydraulic gradient gained from the permeability testing in the site is higher and can not reflect the real hydraulic gradient of the heavily fractured rock. The analysis of engineering geological and hydrological conditions about the foundation of nanwan reservoir is carried out and the computation of the seepage is put forward. The seepage field of the dam is gained from the computation and the datum of long-term observation.The result indicates that the dam is safety.
The theory and method of Hg-measure by geochemistry in soils were introduced firstly to explore faults and fragmentation zones in this paper. Then the judging rule was analyzed between exceptional Hg value and faults. Some case studies were reported and the study results were compared with other methods. It was shown that Hg-measure by geochemistry was effective in exploring fault structures and might have a good prospect. The theory and method of Hg-measure by geochemistry in soils were introduced firstly to explore faults and fragmentation zones in this paper. Then the judging rule was analyzed between exceptional Hg value and faults. Some case studies were reported and the study results were compared with other methods. It was shown that Hg-measure by geochemistry was effective in exploring fault structures and might have a good prospect.
The geologic hazard is frequently in Liaoning province,which will cause a considerable economic losses .The directly damage of properties may cost tens of millions of yuan each year.In order to promote the forecast and alert of geologic hazard,a landform analysis--critical rainfall template has been adopted as a basis for judgement in flood season. Now I try to give a brife report about the practice in Liaoning province of this method and we would very much like to discuss associated problems with relevant units and individuals. The geologic hazard is frequently in Liaoning province,which will cause a considerable economic losses .The directly damage of properties may cost tens of millions of yuan each year.In order to promote the forecast and alert of geologic hazard,a landform analysis--critical rainfall template has been adopted as a basis for judgement in flood season. Now I try to give a brife report about the practice in Liaoning province of this method and we would very much like to discuss associated problems with relevant units and individuals.
Due to the globe warm, lead the permafrost into the shrink and thaw, almost all the various initiatives to protect the permafrost measures were adopted to the actual engineering now. The shading was the one of the main measures, was be used on the embankment side slope on permafrost regions. Contrast with the indoor test data, numerical value analysis result and the field observation, we can draw out the conclusion: The embankment side slope shading measure can reduce the roadbed surface temperature effectively, and limit the embankment temperature elevation obviously, and at the same time it can descend the roadbed artificial permafrost table remarkably. All of this can ensure the road safety and smoothed. Due to the globe warm, lead the permafrost into the shrink and thaw, almost all the various initiatives to protect the permafrost measures were adopted to the actual engineering now. The shading was the one of the main measures, was be used on the embankment side slope on permafrost regions. Contrast with the indoor test data, numerical value analysis result and the field observation, we can draw out the conclusion: The embankment side slope shading measure can reduce the roadbed surface temperature effectively, and limit the embankment temperature elevation obviously, and at the same time it can descend the roadbed artificial permafrost table remarkably. All of this can ensure the road safety and smoothed.
Carbon, oxygen isotopic records show that 5 obvious climatic changes gyrateon have taken place in the central Tarim Basin since 3.4MaB.P.. Before 3.16MaB.P., the climate was warm and humid in this area; during 3.16~2.14MaB.P., the climatic environment was relatively warm and humid; during 2.14~1.70MaB.P., the climate changed cold and dry; during 1.7~0.15MaB.P., the climate continued to change cold and dry; during 0.15MaB.P.-today, the climate changed more cold and dry. Since 3.4MaB.P., in around 3.16Ma.B.P., 2.14MaB.P., 1.70MaB.P. and 0.15MaB.P., 4 short warm and humid climatic period ever appeared in this area. On the while, in the central Tarim Basin, paleoclimate change since 3.4MaB.P. has been with the concurrence of the global trend on the scale of million year, on the smaller time scale, however, it has its own obvious regional features. Carbon, oxygen isotopic records show that 5 obvious climatic changes gyrateon have taken place in the central Tarim Basin since 3.4MaB.P.. Before 3.16MaB.P., the climate was warm and humid in this area; during 3.16~2.14MaB.P., the climatic environment was relatively warm and humid; during 2.14~1.70MaB.P., the climate changed cold and dry; during 1.7~0.15MaB.P., the climate continued to change cold and dry; during 0.15MaB.P.-today, the climate changed more cold and dry. Since 3.4MaB.P., in around 3.16Ma.B.P., 2.14MaB.P., 1.70MaB.P. and 0.15MaB.P., 4 short warm and humid climatic period ever appeared in this area. On the while, in the central Tarim Basin, paleoclimate change since 3.4MaB.P. has been with the concurrence of the global trend on the scale of million year, on the smaller time scale, however, it has its own obvious regional features.
According to pridictions, the air temperature on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau would increase with a value of 2.2~2.6℃. Therefore the pemafrost, featured by rich ice and high ground temperature, would continue the process of degradaion. Under such background, cooling principle was adopted in roadbed constructions of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway in permafrost regions. The engineering methodes of colling roadbeds are based on mechanisms of controlling convection, conductivity and radiation. After years of monitoring, it was indicateds that the methods are effective in protecting the undlying permafrost. Numerical simulations of the longtime efficiency showd that the methods would able to prevent the influence of the global warming. Though some methods need to be improved and optimized. According to pridictions, the air temperature on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau would increase with a value of 2.2~2.6℃. Therefore the pemafrost, featured by rich ice and high ground temperature, would continue the process of degradaion. Under such background, cooling principle was adopted in roadbed constructions of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway in permafrost regions. The engineering methodes of colling roadbeds are based on mechanisms of controlling convection, conductivity and radiation. After years of monitoring, it was indicateds that the methods are effective in protecting the undlying permafrost. Numerical simulations of the longtime efficiency showd that the methods would able to prevent the influence of the global warming. Though some methods need to be improved and optimized.
Under the impact of climate warming and human engineering activities, the embankment with crushed rock slope protection needs the strengthening techniques in warm permafrost regions. Researchers have proposed a good strengthening technique, namely a new composite slope protections for the embankment. Considering the characteristic of air temperature and wind velocity difference between cold months and warm months, the heat transfer and thermal stability of the new embankment with open composite slope protections are studied and analyzed on the base of the non-Darcy flow using finite volume method. The results show that the boundary condition has distinct effect on the characteristic of heat transfer, and that the new embankment with open composite slope protections has better cooling effect and greater cooling rate than the new embankment with closed composite slope protections. Under the impact of climate warming and human engineering activities, the embankment with crushed rock slope protection needs the strengthening techniques in warm permafrost regions. Researchers have proposed a good strengthening technique, namely a new composite slope protections for the embankment. Considering the characteristic of air temperature and wind velocity difference between cold months and warm months, the heat transfer and thermal stability of the new embankment with open composite slope protections are studied and analyzed on the base of the non-Darcy flow using finite volume method. The results show that the boundary condition has distinct effect on the characteristic of heat transfer, and that the new embankment with open composite slope protections has better cooling effect and greater cooling rate than the new embankment with closed composite slope protections.
2007, 15(S1): 69-73.
Abstract(2803)
209KB(419)
A lot of drifting sand disasters are distributed along Qinghai-Tibet railway line Geermu-Lasa section, especially crossing Yangze river source region near many river zone, arid grassland and nearly lake area. The paper made analysis for natural condition, distribution arrange, drifting sand disasters reason and engineer protection result through drifting sand zone. Put forward advance meaningful suggestion for long period controlling drifting sand such as engineering protecting measures, plant controlling drifting sand and setting up specially railway line area. A lot of drifting sand disasters are distributed along Qinghai-Tibet railway line Geermu-Lasa section, especially crossing Yangze river source region near many river zone, arid grassland and nearly lake area. The paper made analysis for natural condition, distribution arrange, drifting sand disasters reason and engineer protection result through drifting sand zone. Put forward advance meaningful suggestion for long period controlling drifting sand such as engineering protecting measures, plant controlling drifting sand and setting up specially railway line area.
The research on frozen soil become ample along with increasing the cold region engineering constructions, such as Qinghai-Tibet Highway, Qinghai-Tibet Railway, Petroleum Pipeline, East-to-West Gas Pipeline, et al. It is sure that mechanics problems run through the research on frozen soil. In this paper, two aspects are mainly discussed about progress in mechanics problems of frozen ground engineering. One is the quiet great progress in coupling questions of water, heat, force, distortion, because frozen soil is influenced by many factors and the phenomena are not described by a certain condition; the other is the comprehensive study on frozen ground dynamics characteristics, because the frozen ground roadbed is observably influenced by dynamic loads. The research on frozen soil become ample along with increasing the cold region engineering constructions, such as Qinghai-Tibet Highway, Qinghai-Tibet Railway, Petroleum Pipeline, East-to-West Gas Pipeline, et al. It is sure that mechanics problems run through the research on frozen soil. In this paper, two aspects are mainly discussed about progress in mechanics problems of frozen ground engineering. One is the quiet great progress in coupling questions of water, heat, force, distortion, because frozen soil is influenced by many factors and the phenomena are not described by a certain condition; the other is the comprehensive study on frozen ground dynamics characteristics, because the frozen ground roadbed is observably influenced by dynamic loads.
Reconnaissance of Nanyang tunnel shows it is an important approach of optimizing tunnel-design scheme to adopt multi-method reconnaissance and apply integrative reconnaissance production to explain and find out the geological condition of project in the district under the complex condition in rock-dissolve district. Reconnaissance of Nanyang tunnel shows it is an important approach of optimizing tunnel-design scheme to adopt multi-method reconnaissance and apply integrative reconnaissance production to explain and find out the geological condition of project in the district under the complex condition in rock-dissolve district.
Through the safety evaluation of slopes dealt in the site of Three Gorges area, some deformation and failure of protective measures of slopes have occurred caused by soil pressure, fill differential settlement and seepage flow. Design deficiency, quality of construction and unreliable maintenance of the projects afterward are the fundamental causes to the devastation. It is a common situation of the devastation in the Three Gorges area for the protection projects of slopes since most of the processing is the emergent procedures without a strictly unified technical standard during that period. After this safety evaluation, safety classes for each slope project need to be categorized. For unsafe slopes and slopes with part unstable situation need to be applied for remedy with rigorous national standards; and for basically safe slopes and safe slopes, periodical observation is necessary. Furthermore, the previous concept, which emphasizes treatments but neglects maintenance, must be concerned and changed. Maintenance of the projects is critical to exert the functions of measures. Through the safety evaluation of slopes dealt in the site of Three Gorges area, some deformation and failure of protective measures of slopes have occurred caused by soil pressure, fill differential settlement and seepage flow. Design deficiency, quality of construction and unreliable maintenance of the projects afterward are the fundamental causes to the devastation. It is a common situation of the devastation in the Three Gorges area for the protection projects of slopes since most of the processing is the emergent procedures without a strictly unified technical standard during that period. After this safety evaluation, safety classes for each slope project need to be categorized. For unsafe slopes and slopes with part unstable situation need to be applied for remedy with rigorous national standards; and for basically safe slopes and safe slopes, periodical observation is necessary. Furthermore, the previous concept, which emphasizes treatments but neglects maintenance, must be concerned and changed. Maintenance of the projects is critical to exert the functions of measures.
In the paper,combined with the geotechnical investigation and the calculation of a landslide,provided the influce of mankind to the stability of the landslide,and in the building should be fully paid attention to the protection of geological and ecological environment. In the paper,combined with the geotechnical investigation and the calculation of a landslide,provided the influce of mankind to the stability of the landslide,and in the building should be fully paid attention to the protection of geological and ecological environment.
The article expound the processing methods for the ground of the building in Karst area through the andlysis to the karst devclopment features in building project area aucl the geologlcal feature problems of main groject. The article expound the processing methods for the ground of the building in Karst area through the andlysis to the karst devclopment features in building project area aucl the geologlcal feature problems of main groject.
Guangyuan City is locted in north of Sichuan Province.It is one of the areas greatly suffering from geological hazards in Sichuan Province.The geological hazards take place frequently and widely in village of mountainous areas in rainy season.This paper shows geological environment of Guangyuan clearly for us,and it also describes characteristics and distribution of geological hazards.In the end,it gives us many useful suggestions to control and govern geological hazards continuously. Guangyuan City is locted in north of Sichuan Province.It is one of the areas greatly suffering from geological hazards in Sichuan Province.The geological hazards take place frequently and widely in village of mountainous areas in rainy season.This paper shows geological environment of Guangyuan clearly for us,and it also describes characteristics and distribution of geological hazards.In the end,it gives us many useful suggestions to control and govern geological hazards continuously.
The text introduces the first experiment of the Ram-compaction pile with composite Bearing Base in ChengDu. The Ram-compaction with composite bearing base patent equipment is applied to manufacture composite bearing base and common piles at the same diameter and length. Loading capacity is tested in using load test. It shows that bearing capacity of the Ram-compaction with composite bearing base is 3.4 times common Ram-compaction pile; at the same settlement, bearing capacity of the former is higher than the latter; the Ram-compaction with composite bearing base pile adapts to larger settlement than common Ram-compaction pile. The text introduces the first experiment of the Ram-compaction pile with composite Bearing Base in ChengDu. The Ram-compaction with composite bearing base patent equipment is applied to manufacture composite bearing base and common piles at the same diameter and length. Loading capacity is tested in using load test. It shows that bearing capacity of the Ram-compaction with composite bearing base is 3.4 times common Ram-compaction pile; at the same settlement, bearing capacity of the former is higher than the latter; the Ram-compaction with composite bearing base pile adapts to larger settlement than common Ram-compaction pile.
This paper selects the dumping site of the HuangJia ravine (to be built) as a case,which is a rock filling in Badong county that is an emigratory city of the reservoir region. Considering the engineering geological condition, hydrological geological and the characteristics of the rock filling slope, the possible damage mode of the rock filling after filling is speculated .On that basis, the un-equilibrium pushing method is used to calculate the stability of rock filling slope.Consulting the principles of rockfill dam in hydropower engineering, the comprehensive protection measures are adopted to ensure the stability of the rock filling which includes canal、revetment、rolling and supporting structure .The source of materials in the dumping site come from the waste of landslide prevention program.So,the protection design for the rock filling is a new method and approach for urban planning and environmental protection in the emigratory towns of reservoir region. It also has an important social and economic benefit. This paper selects the dumping site of the HuangJia ravine (to be built) as a case,which is a rock filling in Badong county that is an emigratory city of the reservoir region. Considering the engineering geological condition, hydrological geological and the characteristics of the rock filling slope, the possible damage mode of the rock filling after filling is speculated .On that basis, the un-equilibrium pushing method is used to calculate the stability of rock filling slope.Consulting the principles of rockfill dam in hydropower engineering, the comprehensive protection measures are adopted to ensure the stability of the rock filling which includes canal、revetment、rolling and supporting structure .The source of materials in the dumping site come from the waste of landslide prevention program.So,the protection design for the rock filling is a new method and approach for urban planning and environmental protection in the emigratory towns of reservoir region. It also has an important social and economic benefit.
Beitianshan Tunnel in Xinjiang is a key and very important project in the railway of Jingyifuo. Based on a great deal of investigation and earlier construction, the feature and key points of the tunnel were introduced firstly in this paper. The groundwater and bad geological conditions are crucial problems in the construction of the tunnel. In the end, some technological measures were suggested according to the corresponding discuss and experience, which is a good reference for similar project. Beitianshan Tunnel in Xinjiang is a key and very important project in the railway of Jingyifuo. Based on a great deal of investigation and earlier construction, the feature and key points of the tunnel were introduced firstly in this paper. The groundwater and bad geological conditions are crucial problems in the construction of the tunnel. In the end, some technological measures were suggested according to the corresponding discuss and experience, which is a good reference for similar project.
Much relationship lying between stability of the slope and groundwater,because of this,the Finite Element Method is used to analysis the effect of groundwater on stability of the slope,the stress and displacement field in slope body is given。At the same time,some methods such as the Finite Element Method、Fellenius Method、Bishop Method、the Single Bishop Method and Janbu Method is used to analysis the safety factor of the slope stability at different groundwater,the effect on the slope stability is analysis by the change of groundwater,the results can provide theoretical base for designing safety system of the slope. Much relationship lying between stability of the slope and groundwater,because of this,the Finite Element Method is used to analysis the effect of groundwater on stability of the slope,the stress and displacement field in slope body is given。At the same time,some methods such as the Finite Element Method、Fellenius Method、Bishop Method、the Single Bishop Method and Janbu Method is used to analysis the safety factor of the slope stability at different groundwater,the effect on the slope stability is analysis by the change of groundwater,the results can provide theoretical base for designing safety system of the slope.
The relations between geology disaster and mountain area's construct is based on in this article .landslide as a serious geology disaster often happens in zhejiang province coastal and mountainous region,which causes the traffic being blocked, the hillmen's farmland being desreoyed, the building being collapsed and the living environment being worsen frequently. In order to prevent geology disaster and obtain early warning and announce in advance, the analysis of lanslides mechanicsm is very important.According to above,the government and scientist can make suitable society and project precautionary measures which will bring benefit to the humanbeings. The relations between geology disaster and mountain area's construct is based on in this article .landslide as a serious geology disaster often happens in zhejiang province coastal and mountainous region,which causes the traffic being blocked, the hillmen's farmland being desreoyed, the building being collapsed and the living environment being worsen frequently. In order to prevent geology disaster and obtain early warning and announce in advance, the analysis of lanslides mechanicsm is very important.According to above,the government and scientist can make suitable society and project precautionary measures which will bring benefit to the humanbeings.
In this paper, the fundamental concept of geological disaster susceptibility,hazard vulnerability and risk are expounded.The susceptibility describes the complexity to occur geological disaster in a certain district and reflects physics geological phenomena. The hazard is a function of scale and probability of disaster occurrence, reflects activity degree and damage capability of disaster. The vulnerability indicates vulnerable degree of social economy and human society capability to disasters. The risk is a connecting unity of natural and social attribute of disaster, and it is the product expression of hazard and vulnerability. Based on this, it's influence factors and calculating methods are described. It is supposed this thoughts which from shallow to deep and from external to internal may be applied to research on geological disaster assessment and risk management. And it has a better developmental prospect. In this paper, the fundamental concept of geological disaster susceptibility,hazard vulnerability and risk are expounded.The susceptibility describes the complexity to occur geological disaster in a certain district and reflects physics geological phenomena. The hazard is a function of scale and probability of disaster occurrence, reflects activity degree and damage capability of disaster. The vulnerability indicates vulnerable degree of social economy and human society capability to disasters. The risk is a connecting unity of natural and social attribute of disaster, and it is the product expression of hazard and vulnerability. Based on this, it's influence factors and calculating methods are described. It is supposed this thoughts which from shallow to deep and from external to internal may be applied to research on geological disaster assessment and risk management. And it has a better developmental prospect.
The weight is the key index to the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation, and it can have direct effects on the accuracy of the evaluation. In this article the theory of multiple objective decisions making with entropy weight method is applied to the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation, and the entropy weight values can be provided by membership matrix without artificial subjective factors, so the results is scientifical and more accurate. A certain landslide in Baota district of Yan'an city in Shaanxi province is analysed with the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results indicate that the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation for the stability of landslide with entropy-weight method has more accurate results and more reliability, and the method is feasible, which has some referenced values for the evaluation on the engineering geology stability. The weight is the key index to the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation, and it can have direct effects on the accuracy of the evaluation. In this article the theory of multiple objective decisions making with entropy weight method is applied to the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation, and the entropy weight values can be provided by membership matrix without artificial subjective factors, so the results is scientifical and more accurate. A certain landslide in Baota district of Yan'an city in Shaanxi province is analysed with the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results indicate that the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation for the stability of landslide with entropy-weight method has more accurate results and more reliability, and the method is feasible, which has some referenced values for the evaluation on the engineering geology stability.
Based on data from the detailed geo-hazard investigation in the Baota district, Yan'an city, Controlling and triggering factors of loess landslides and collapses were analyzed. Such conclusions that gully development phase, geological conditions of slopes, geometry of slopes control the formation, distribution, scales and types of loess landslides. Groundwater and vegetation also contribute the formation of landslides. The coupled human activities and rainfall is the major triggering factor of landslides. Based on data from the detailed geo-hazard investigation in the Baota district, Yan'an city, Controlling and triggering factors of loess landslides and collapses were analyzed. Such conclusions that gully development phase, geological conditions of slopes, geometry of slopes control the formation, distribution, scales and types of loess landslides. Groundwater and vegetation also contribute the formation of landslides. The coupled human activities and rainfall is the major triggering factor of landslides.
Southern Gansu segment of G212 is one of the most landslide-developed area in China. There are many influence factors on landslides, in which ]geological structure is the most important one. This paper deeply analyses the geological structure control action on landslides in this area, based on the investigations of area geological structure and the distribution rule of landslides, moreover analyses from many point of view like faults, folds, terrane occurrence, new tectonic movement, earthquake and so on. Southern Gansu segment of G212 is one of the most landslide-developed area in China. There are many influence factors on landslides, in which ]geological structure is the most important one. This paper deeply analyses the geological structure control action on landslides in this area, based on the investigations of area geological structure and the distribution rule of landslides, moreover analyses from many point of view like faults, folds, terrane occurrence, new tectonic movement, earthquake and so on.
A express highway cross hilly ground in fracture zone, geological conditions is badly, design and construct are unfilled. Because strong rainfall in 2005.6,the slope appears probable 10104m3 deforming section, serious affect normal operational of express highway. For validity harness the deforming slopes, according to preliminary prospecting in site, we make good the design of urgent engineering and synthesis harness. Through achievement of deeply displacement, the slope already stabilize, so the design is success to urgent engineering. A express highway cross hilly ground in fracture zone, geological conditions is badly, design and construct are unfilled. Because strong rainfall in 2005.6,the slope appears probable 10104m3 deforming section, serious affect normal operational of express highway. For validity harness the deforming slopes, according to preliminary prospecting in site, we make good the design of urgent engineering and synthesis harness. Through achievement of deeply displacement, the slope already stabilize, so the design is success to urgent engineering.
Risk evaluation of geological hazard is an important mean to reduce geo-hazard by human. Evaluation program is a mark of Risk evaluation of geological hazard progress. Based on the analysis of risk evaluation program of geological hazard from 2000 to 2006, the author discuss the progress and problem in risk evaluation of geological hazard of in shaanxi province, put forward the trend of risk evaluation of geological hazard. Finally, some countermeasures are presented. Risk evaluation of geological hazard is an important mean to reduce geo-hazard by human. Evaluation program is a mark of Risk evaluation of geological hazard progress. Based on the analysis of risk evaluation program of geological hazard from 2000 to 2006, the author discuss the progress and problem in risk evaluation of geological hazard of in shaanxi province, put forward the trend of risk evaluation of geological hazard. Finally, some countermeasures are presented.
Water resources in the Plain of Manas River Basin have exploited and utilized with a long history. With continuously development of industry, agriculture, society and economy, the engineering system of irrigation in the study area becomes more and more perfect year by year. The global idea of water resources exploitation and utilization is comparatively reasonable, and actively promotes the development of local economy and eco-environment. But due to some unreasonable factors still existing, the environment problems, include the austere eco-environment, the reduced runoff of spring in the overflow zone, the successively declined groundwater level, the exasperate water quality and etc., have been occurring. Hence, this paper put forward some suggestions for the reasonable exploitation and utilization of water resources. Water resources in the Plain of Manas River Basin have exploited and utilized with a long history. With continuously development of industry, agriculture, society and economy, the engineering system of irrigation in the study area becomes more and more perfect year by year. The global idea of water resources exploitation and utilization is comparatively reasonable, and actively promotes the development of local economy and eco-environment. But due to some unreasonable factors still existing, the environment problems, include the austere eco-environment, the reduced runoff of spring in the overflow zone, the successively declined groundwater level, the exasperate water quality and etc., have been occurring. Hence, this paper put forward some suggestions for the reasonable exploitation and utilization of water resources.
This article aimed geotechnical engineering condition and developing characteristics of karst and earth caves in karst area a investigation sites,carried out geotechnical engineering investigation evaluation. Moreover, analyses and discuss a wide deeply range of subjects, about basic type of selection and design, combining with engineer practice experience. This article aimed geotechnical engineering condition and developing characteristics of karst and earth caves in karst area a investigation sites,carried out geotechnical engineering investigation evaluation. Moreover, analyses and discuss a wide deeply range of subjects, about basic type of selection and design, combining with engineer practice experience.
Based on investigation of the distributing and distortion break characters of ground and building fissures at the city zone of Yajiang county, its growth rule was summarized, and its forming mechanism was analysed combining geological conditions such as slope geological structure and groundwater. Its forming mechanism is that the relax soil lies on the front and back zone of slope which structure is complex creeps and glides bringing on asymmetry subsiding. Besides, earthquake accelerates its form and expanding. The research production is important signification for integer stability appraisement of the city zone slope, the town planning constructing and making choice of normal sluice place Yagen hydroelectric station downstream of Yalong river. Furthermore,it is certain meaning for cognition to the causation of building crack at the county in a mountainous area. Based on investigation of the distributing and distortion break characters of ground and building fissures at the city zone of Yajiang county, its growth rule was summarized, and its forming mechanism was analysed combining geological conditions such as slope geological structure and groundwater. Its forming mechanism is that the relax soil lies on the front and back zone of slope which structure is complex creeps and glides bringing on asymmetry subsiding. Besides, earthquake accelerates its form and expanding. The research production is important signification for integer stability appraisement of the city zone slope, the town planning constructing and making choice of normal sluice place Yagen hydroelectric station downstream of Yalong river. Furthermore,it is certain meaning for cognition to the causation of building crack at the county in a mountainous area.
There exist many serious landslides in the three gorges reservoir areas, the synthetical application of drainage engineering, support engineering, anchor method and the measure of unload and load are used to cure the landslides, in order to prevent their revival after the reservoir water level arise.Thus, there appear many problems in the curing design, and the mains include: influence of the value of c andon the design, stability of the slide body behind the support structure, influence of bank failure before the support structure on the slide body, applicabiliy of bank-protection in the reservoir areas. Taking the Majiagou landslide as example, this text analysizes these problems. There exist many serious landslides in the three gorges reservoir areas, the synthetical application of drainage engineering, support engineering, anchor method and the measure of unload and load are used to cure the landslides, in order to prevent their revival after the reservoir water level arise.Thus, there appear many problems in the curing design, and the mains include: influence of the value of c andon the design, stability of the slide body behind the support structure, influence of bank failure before the support structure on the slide body, applicabiliy of bank-protection in the reservoir areas. Taking the Majiagou landslide as example, this text analysizes these problems.
Abase on investigating the structure and distortion cracking character of plasmodium zhao zixiu mountain in Hua Ying city, this paper analyses origin mechanics and stability appraisement to the plasmodium. Analyse indicates its causation is that reverse Layered rocks slope which containing coal beds at the bottom of the mountain Topples and bends rip distortion among physiognomy evolvement of slope. Furthermore, excavating coal accelerates recent distortion of slope. The glide stability analyse through pass modulus way and dumpage stability analyse in Goodman-Bray way indicates that it is prodigious possible to loss stability when rainstorm or earthquake. Bases on its structure、origin mechanics、stability conditions and loss stability ways, this paper brings forward adopting colligation father measures such as reinforcement by rope-bolt、drainage and supporting hollow caused by excavating coal to integer, aiming at danger rock mass, advises to clear away or defend it by initiative defending netting. Abase on investigating the structure and distortion cracking character of plasmodium zhao zixiu mountain in Hua Ying city, this paper analyses origin mechanics and stability appraisement to the plasmodium. Analyse indicates its causation is that reverse Layered rocks slope which containing coal beds at the bottom of the mountain Topples and bends rip distortion among physiognomy evolvement of slope. Furthermore, excavating coal accelerates recent distortion of slope. The glide stability analyse through pass modulus way and dumpage stability analyse in Goodman-Bray way indicates that it is prodigious possible to loss stability when rainstorm or earthquake. Bases on its structure、origin mechanics、stability conditions and loss stability ways, this paper brings forward adopting colligation father measures such as reinforcement by rope-bolt、drainage and supporting hollow caused by excavating coal to integer, aiming at danger rock mass, advises to clear away or defend it by initiative defending netting.
Urban environment geology problem is getting serious when our country is now in the historical phase of urbanizing with high speed. a lot of factors such as using original vegetation and soil into urban building, sclerous soil surface and building density increasing rapidly result in both the surface current's runoff and flood peak runoff increase, while the flood peak appears early than usually time,all these make it more likely to engender urban flood domino effect. The factors such as ground water exploring results in ground sedimentation both arguments in area and increases in amount, as well as form a lot of sedimentation centers. ground sedimentation can bring a series of harm, for example, it can debases altitude and brings urban seeper after rain,as well as destroys urban underground pipeline net .now Penetrated pavement will be applied to prevent and abate urban environment geology disaster and ecological environment deterioration form the point of ecological urban building, it aims at solve urban security in particular urban environment geology security problem, it'll service for prevent urban disaster,urban ecological building and urban continuable development. Urban environment geology problem is getting serious when our country is now in the historical phase of urbanizing with high speed. a lot of factors such as using original vegetation and soil into urban building, sclerous soil surface and building density increasing rapidly result in both the surface current's runoff and flood peak runoff increase, while the flood peak appears early than usually time,all these make it more likely to engender urban flood domino effect. The factors such as ground water exploring results in ground sedimentation both arguments in area and increases in amount, as well as form a lot of sedimentation centers. ground sedimentation can bring a series of harm, for example, it can debases altitude and brings urban seeper after rain,as well as destroys urban underground pipeline net .now Penetrated pavement will be applied to prevent and abate urban environment geology disaster and ecological environment deterioration form the point of ecological urban building, it aims at solve urban security in particular urban environment geology security problem, it'll service for prevent urban disaster,urban ecological building and urban continuable development.
The geological environment is a key factor which affects the safety and development of cities. So the research on city environment and engineering geological problems is instructive to city design, management of land resource, prevention of geo-hazards, and site solution of important projects. Based on a great deal of field data and monitoring data, the environmental and geological conditions in Wuhan City were discussed and analyzed such as geological structure, engineering geology, and hydraulic geology. Besides, the main environmental and engineering geological problems were summarized including their characteristic, distribution and scale, where some effective measures were suggested. The geological environment is a key factor which affects the safety and development of cities. So the research on city environment and engineering geological problems is instructive to city design, management of land resource, prevention of geo-hazards, and site solution of important projects. Based on a great deal of field data and monitoring data, the environmental and geological conditions in Wuhan City were discussed and analyzed such as geological structure, engineering geology, and hydraulic geology. Besides, the main environmental and engineering geological problems were summarized including their characteristic, distribution and scale, where some effective measures were suggested.
The methods for design and calculation of stabilizing piles, which includes the method of load-structure popularly applied in China and the methods proposed by Viggani C., Ito Tomio etc, Poulos H. G. etc, are systematically commented. The methods could contribute to two types, the first is based on limit equilibrium, such as the method of load-structure and Viggani C., Ito Tomio etc; the second is based on displacement compatibility which conditioning with limit load. It is the intention for stabilizing piles design to set up a method with displacement compatibility and displacement control based on the principle of soil-structure interaction, which could be realized by the technique of sub-structural finite element, but further research should be paid for. The methods for design and calculation of stabilizing piles, which includes the method of load-structure popularly applied in China and the methods proposed by Viggani C., Ito Tomio etc, Poulos H. G. etc, are systematically commented. The methods could contribute to two types, the first is based on limit equilibrium, such as the method of load-structure and Viggani C., Ito Tomio etc; the second is based on displacement compatibility which conditioning with limit load. It is the intention for stabilizing piles design to set up a method with displacement compatibility and displacement control based on the principle of soil-structure interaction, which could be realized by the technique of sub-structural finite element, but further research should be paid for.
Water resource of Tibet YuLonog copper mine is very plentiful.This paper analyses natural environmental factor and the feature water resource and ecologic environment in mining area,Study on the fragility of water resource preliminary,Suggestion was gave for how to developing and protecting the ecologic environment of mining. Water resource of Tibet YuLonog copper mine is very plentiful.This paper analyses natural environmental factor and the feature water resource and ecologic environment in mining area,Study on the fragility of water resource preliminary,Suggestion was gave for how to developing and protecting the ecologic environment of mining.
The combined model of open-pit with underground mine has always been adopted by metal mine and inclined coal seam mine before, and we used the method of open-pit or underground mining to mine the shallow horizontal thick coal seam previously. Recent years, in China's major coal production base Pingshuo mining area, the method of combining caving mine and open-pit method was adopted to exploit the shallow horizontal thick coal seam, and it has already made considerable economic benefits. In this paper, the influence of adopting caving mining method in shallow horizontal thick coal seam to open-pit mining and slope stability is analyzed detailedly, the open questions and research technique are also put forward. The combined model of open-pit with underground mine has always been adopted by metal mine and inclined coal seam mine before, and we used the method of open-pit or underground mining to mine the shallow horizontal thick coal seam previously. Recent years, in China's major coal production base Pingshuo mining area, the method of combining caving mine and open-pit method was adopted to exploit the shallow horizontal thick coal seam, and it has already made considerable economic benefits. In this paper, the influence of adopting caving mining method in shallow horizontal thick coal seam to open-pit mining and slope stability is analyzed detailedly, the open questions and research technique are also put forward.
Taking the 2204 working face of Xinzhi Colliery in Huozhou as the background, through experiment of analog simulation, analyze the structure type of old goaf overburden rock breakage, instability activation mechanism of overburden rock and instability form and condition for stability of voussoir beam of old goaf. As the result, after mining and breakage, the rock mass structure of old goaf and overburden rock can be divided four types. This secondary rock structure has an important effect on old goaf activation. The existence form will decide the basic characteristic of old goaf activation. Through the mechanics analysis on voussoir beam of old goaf, it is obtained that instability due to sliding mainly depend upon the physical mechanics characteristic of key block and sideward rock, W/T value, and additional load of building on surface and so on. Rotational instability is related to the physical mechanics characteristic of key block and sideward rock and thick and length ratio h/l of the hanging rock. Taking the 2204 working face of Xinzhi Colliery in Huozhou as the background, through experiment of analog simulation, analyze the structure type of old goaf overburden rock breakage, instability activation mechanism of overburden rock and instability form and condition for stability of voussoir beam of old goaf. As the result, after mining and breakage, the rock mass structure of old goaf and overburden rock can be divided four types. This secondary rock structure has an important effect on old goaf activation. The existence form will decide the basic characteristic of old goaf activation. Through the mechanics analysis on voussoir beam of old goaf, it is obtained that instability due to sliding mainly depend upon the physical mechanics characteristic of key block and sideward rock, W/T value, and additional load of building on surface and so on. Rotational instability is related to the physical mechanics characteristic of key block and sideward rock and thick and length ratio h/l of the hanging rock.
There are seven debris flows in the dam-area of one hydro-power station on Jinshajiang river. Through expatiating on the characteristic rainfall, the condition of channel landforms, the character of relax solid substance, the character of debris flow's district,activity and cumulus, the author generally evaluate the possibility and danger of debris flows . Because this is a super-big power station project, so the analyzing about debris flow's deposit effort and lash destroy effort to the power station are mainly made. Last we think that debris flow which lies at upper reaches of dam-area, the debris flow deposit will be pushed gradually to the reservoir with the process of time, and it does a little effect during the reservoir's normal work. And debris flow which lies at lower reaches of dam-area, it mainly affect establishments and field during construction, so we need take the suitable guiding and draining methods to prevent debris flows combining permanent stability structure. There are seven debris flows in the dam-area of one hydro-power station on Jinshajiang river. Through expatiating on the characteristic rainfall, the condition of channel landforms, the character of relax solid substance, the character of debris flow's district,activity and cumulus, the author generally evaluate the possibility and danger of debris flows . Because this is a super-big power station project, so the analyzing about debris flow's deposit effort and lash destroy effort to the power station are mainly made. Last we think that debris flow which lies at upper reaches of dam-area, the debris flow deposit will be pushed gradually to the reservoir with the process of time, and it does a little effect during the reservoir's normal work. And debris flow which lies at lower reaches of dam-area, it mainly affect establishments and field during construction, so we need take the suitable guiding and draining methods to prevent debris flows combining permanent stability structure.
Thie paper examines the recovering treatments and invironment fracture fot mineral exploit. Thie paper examines the recovering treatments and invironment fracture fot mineral exploit.
There is more geological disaster along the 4th section of the trunk canal of the middle route project for South-to-North Water Diversion. The types of geohazards has collapse, landslide, mud-rock flow, surface subsidence, land fracture, land subsidence and ground unequal settlement. the controlling countermeasure and the suggestion of the different disaster is proposed in trunk canal construction process. There is more geological disaster along the 4th section of the trunk canal of the middle route project for South-to-North Water Diversion. The types of geohazards has collapse, landslide, mud-rock flow, surface subsidence, land fracture, land subsidence and ground unequal settlement. the controlling countermeasure and the suggestion of the different disaster is proposed in trunk canal construction process.
Groundwater is the main water supply source of Shijiazhuang city for many years. But, as the reinforcement of the Huangbizhuang reservoir auxiliary dam, a project to control the reservoir leakage, the groundwater side recharge from the reservoir seepage, as a part of total groundwater supply for Shijiazhuang city, is largely cut off by the auxiliary dam. This results in a new problem of water supply safety of riverside groundwater source. This paper described the history and present condition of groundwater exploitation and utilization in Shijiazhuang city, analyzed the auxiliary dam reinforcement how to affect the groundwater of lower head area, and also analyzed the situation of supply and demand for water resources in the near future. According to designing frequency of precipitation, the water levels of all the wells which belong to groundwater-pumping plant No.4 and No.7 were calculated. Furthermore, on the basis of safety analysis for the main water supply wells of groundwater source, a assessment of water supply safety is gained through designing the safety stages of wells. Groundwater is the main water supply source of Shijiazhuang city for many years. But, as the reinforcement of the Huangbizhuang reservoir auxiliary dam, a project to control the reservoir leakage, the groundwater side recharge from the reservoir seepage, as a part of total groundwater supply for Shijiazhuang city, is largely cut off by the auxiliary dam. This results in a new problem of water supply safety of riverside groundwater source. This paper described the history and present condition of groundwater exploitation and utilization in Shijiazhuang city, analyzed the auxiliary dam reinforcement how to affect the groundwater of lower head area, and also analyzed the situation of supply and demand for water resources in the near future. According to designing frequency of precipitation, the water levels of all the wells which belong to groundwater-pumping plant No.4 and No.7 were calculated. Furthermore, on the basis of safety analysis for the main water supply wells of groundwater source, a assessment of water supply safety is gained through designing the safety stages of wells.
In this paper, based on the geographical location and the running character of the Gan Lan Ba power station reservoir, the problem of the reservoir inundation is analysed and evaluated by the characteristic level of reservoir. And,according to the investigation on the influence on the peripheral inundation area of the inland lakes of dian chi,yangzonghai in Yun nan province, the inundation area is divided into severe inundation area, medium inundation area and slight inundation area .As a result, the handling measurements and advices are brought forward for the different degree of the inundation influence. In this paper, based on the geographical location and the running character of the Gan Lan Ba power station reservoir, the problem of the reservoir inundation is analysed and evaluated by the characteristic level of reservoir. And,according to the investigation on the influence on the peripheral inundation area of the inland lakes of dian chi,yangzonghai in Yun nan province, the inundation area is divided into severe inundation area, medium inundation area and slight inundation area .As a result, the handling measurements and advices are brought forward for the different degree of the inundation influence.
Based on the systematic researches and analysis of the geology and spontaneous combustion mechanism of the coal seam in the mining area, this paper, with Ruqigou Coal Mine in Ningxia autonomous region as an example, gives a discussion on the feasibility of building of the early warning and the monitor system for the coal fire by applying the remote sensing technology to accurate detection of the distribution of the fire area in the coal field. Based on the systematic researches and analysis of the geology and spontaneous combustion mechanism of the coal seam in the mining area, this paper, with Ruqigou Coal Mine in Ningxia autonomous region as an example, gives a discussion on the feasibility of building of the early warning and the monitor system for the coal fire by applying the remote sensing technology to accurate detection of the distribution of the fire area in the coal field.
The deformation and monitoring dates of Wugongling landslide are analysed in this paper based on appling the theory of fuzzy classification and the theory of fuzzy optimal selection. In additon, BP neural network is used to predict the landslide movement trend. The results indicte that the conclusions are reliable. Finally, the suggestions are proposed as well. The deformation and monitoring dates of Wugongling landslide are analysed in this paper based on appling the theory of fuzzy classification and the theory of fuzzy optimal selection. In additon, BP neural network is used to predict the landslide movement trend. The results indicte that the conclusions are reliable. Finally, the suggestions are proposed as well.
According to classified assessment thought and principle, this article explores assessment system about cascade hydropower development in main stream of Jinsha River effecting on ecology geology environment with four big kinds of subsystems such as assessment subsystem about slope (bank slope) stability, assessment subsystem about soil and water loss and reservoir sedimentation, assessment subsystem about ecological environment evolution and subsystem about influence of social economy development as its trunk, initially establishes four big kind of assessment index system and assessment method, and then separately carries on assessment on it, finally carries on the comprehensive analysis assessment to the ecology geology environmental effect of cascade hydropower development in main stream of Jinsha River. According to classified assessment thought and principle, this article explores assessment system about cascade hydropower development in main stream of Jinsha River effecting on ecology geology environment with four big kinds of subsystems such as assessment subsystem about slope (bank slope) stability, assessment subsystem about soil and water loss and reservoir sedimentation, assessment subsystem about ecological environment evolution and subsystem about influence of social economy development as its trunk, initially establishes four big kind of assessment index system and assessment method, and then separately carries on assessment on it, finally carries on the comprehensive analysis assessment to the ecology geology environmental effect of cascade hydropower development in main stream of Jinsha River.
Based on a large amount of on-site monitoring date, the characteristic of engineering geological phenomena induced by downward cemented backfill mining in Jinchuan No.2 mine is analyzed in detail, which mainly contains land subsidence and ground fissure, and point out these characteristics induced by underground mining with downward cemented backfill are different from coal mining, then, the author integrate them with concrete conditions and examples, analyze and study its effects on surface structure and underground works, then some reasonable suggestions to prevent and alleviate the problem are advised. Based on a large amount of on-site monitoring date, the characteristic of engineering geological phenomena induced by downward cemented backfill mining in Jinchuan No.2 mine is analyzed in detail, which mainly contains land subsidence and ground fissure, and point out these characteristics induced by underground mining with downward cemented backfill are different from coal mining, then, the author integrate them with concrete conditions and examples, analyze and study its effects on surface structure and underground works, then some reasonable suggestions to prevent and alleviate the problem are advised.
The evaluation on the ground subsidence and cracks due to steeply inclined seam mining is one of the difficulties affecting the safety of gas pipelines. Numerical simulation of the ground deformation and stability surrounding the gas pipeline in somewhere in Northwestern area is conducted by applying finite difference method (FDM). The reason of crack occurring in the ground due to mining is analyzed, and the safety of gas pipeline is quantitatively evaluated. The evaluation on the ground subsidence and cracks due to steeply inclined seam mining is one of the difficulties affecting the safety of gas pipelines. Numerical simulation of the ground deformation and stability surrounding the gas pipeline in somewhere in Northwestern area is conducted by applying finite difference method (FDM). The reason of crack occurring in the ground due to mining is analyzed, and the safety of gas pipeline is quantitatively evaluated.
This article introduced the Henan small Qinling mine existence maingeological environment question and the auther design in recent years sadopts mainly restores the government measure,Through the example explained it restores the government measure thefeasibility, the efficiency and the usabiwty Restores the government for the similar mine geology ehvironment toprovide the model experience. This article introduced the Henan small Qinling mine existence maingeological environment question and the auther design in recent years sadopts mainly restores the government measure,Through the example explained it restores the government measure thefeasibility, the efficiency and the usabiwty Restores the government for the similar mine geology ehvironment toprovide the model experience.
Geothermal resources is reproducible energy sources, Its exploration and utilization is an intricate system project. We take into account not only the predominance of geothermal resources but also the influence of geological environment. The article illustrates the problems of geological environment due to exploration and utilization of geothermal resources in our countries and foreign countries, and analyses the endangerment of geological environment problems and puts out the measures of resolving problems Geothermal resources is reproducible energy sources, Its exploration and utilization is an intricate system project. We take into account not only the predominance of geothermal resources but also the influence of geological environment. The article illustrates the problems of geological environment due to exploration and utilization of geothermal resources in our countries and foreign countries, and analyses the endangerment of geological environment problems and puts out the measures of resolving problems
The method of NanoTEM is introduced in this paper, especially its characteristic of quick-off and quick-sample. Also, the fact of survey proved that the method of NanoTEM is very effective to explore mined caverns of coal bed. The method of NanoTEM is introduced in this paper, especially its characteristic of quick-off and quick-sample. Also, the fact of survey proved that the method of NanoTEM is very effective to explore mined caverns of coal bed.
It is of vital significance to research advanced forecast theory and technique of engineering geology and disaster, considering the latent geologic disaster and safety hidden danger in the high-stress adverse geology underground engineering. In this paper, research content and forecast theory and prediction method which are needed in the forecast of engineering geologic condition and geologic disaster are elaborated and also its critical technique are discussed. It is of vital significance to research advanced forecast theory and technique of engineering geology and disaster, considering the latent geologic disaster and safety hidden danger in the high-stress adverse geology underground engineering. In this paper, research content and forecast theory and prediction method which are needed in the forecast of engineering geologic condition and geologic disaster are elaborated and also its critical technique are discussed.
This paper is mainly to study the subsidiary shaft's stability which may be potentially deformation failure owing to the varying engineering geologic condition in depth. With the help of the adjacent main shaft's engineering geologic condition the relation between the liner's thickness and releasing deformation is probed by using numerical analyses. The research shows that the rational thickness of liner of the subsidiary shaft is about 700mm and rational releasing displacement is 70~90mm. In order to satisfy safely using space the diameter of the shaft would increase up 6.35m from designed 6.3m. The revised design proposal had been adopted and obtained success in the construction of the shaft. This paper is mainly to study the subsidiary shaft's stability which may be potentially deformation failure owing to the varying engineering geologic condition in depth. With the help of the adjacent main shaft's engineering geologic condition the relation between the liner's thickness and releasing deformation is probed by using numerical analyses. The research shows that the rational thickness of liner of the subsidiary shaft is about 700mm and rational releasing displacement is 70~90mm. In order to satisfy safely using space the diameter of the shaft would increase up 6.35m from designed 6.3m. The revised design proposal had been adopted and obtained success in the construction of the shaft.
1# ore body is a main one in Jinchuan mine and is also mining ore body of the second period mining for Mine No,2 Jinchuan mine. Because the embedding depth of the ore is larger, joints is more development and geological structural stress is higher the stability of surrounding rock masses of the deep stop is lower. As increase of the depth of mining depth and extending of mining area the activity of underground pressure of the stope is intensive, then the problems of stability of roadways and stope is more serious. So it is necessary for us to explore a reasonable measures and optimizing design parameters. The research of engineering geology is the above study. This paper gives the results of the conditions of the surrounding rock masses and quality evaluation based on investigation in site, analysis and researches. The results had been used into controlling underground pressure and support design of the roadways. 1# ore body is a main one in Jinchuan mine and is also mining ore body of the second period mining for Mine No,2 Jinchuan mine. Because the embedding depth of the ore is larger, joints is more development and geological structural stress is higher the stability of surrounding rock masses of the deep stop is lower. As increase of the depth of mining depth and extending of mining area the activity of underground pressure of the stope is intensive, then the problems of stability of roadways and stope is more serious. So it is necessary for us to explore a reasonable measures and optimizing design parameters. The research of engineering geology is the above study. This paper gives the results of the conditions of the surrounding rock masses and quality evaluation based on investigation in site, analysis and researches. The results had been used into controlling underground pressure and support design of the roadways.
The triaxial tests under high confining pressure, high hydraulic pressure and permeability are done on the marble, sandstone and slate samples from the water diversion channel of Jinping-1 hydropower project to study the effects of high confining pressure and hydraulic on the strength and deformation. The triaxial tests under high confining pressure, high hydraulic pressure and permeability are done on the marble, sandstone and slate samples from the water diversion channel of Jinping-1 hydropower project to study the effects of high confining pressure and hydraulic on the strength and deformation.
Being located in the suture band of the Eurasian plate and the India plate, the modern structure stress is very strong in the area of the three river juxtaposition. The area is one of the most intense region of land upraising since Quaternary period, and it is also the one of the most growth region of geological hazard. The Nujiang gorge, the Lancang gorge and the Jinshajiang gorge are the centralizing growth areas of geological hazard in all the area of the three river juxtaposition. The hydropower stations that have been planed at the three rivers will be faced with the environment- engineering geology problems that include the modern structure stress, the stress from high slope, collapses, landslides, mud-rock flows, reservoir depositing,inducing earthquake etc. It is the premise of construction of the hydropower stations that these environment-engineering geology problems must be solved. Being located in the suture band of the Eurasian plate and the India plate, the modern structure stress is very strong in the area of the three river juxtaposition. The area is one of the most intense region of land upraising since Quaternary period, and it is also the one of the most growth region of geological hazard. The Nujiang gorge, the Lancang gorge and the Jinshajiang gorge are the centralizing growth areas of geological hazard in all the area of the three river juxtaposition. The hydropower stations that have been planed at the three rivers will be faced with the environment- engineering geology problems that include the modern structure stress, the stress from high slope, collapses, landslides, mud-rock flows, reservoir depositing,inducing earthquake etc. It is the premise of construction of the hydropower stations that these environment-engineering geology problems must be solved.
Due to Changba Lead-zinc Mine's transition from surface to underground mining in advance,a series of production and safety problems are brought, among which, the stability of slope is the most obvious problem. As result, it is necessary to carry out the stability evaluation and destabilization prediction of slope so as to ensure the safety production of mine. In this paper, firstly, the engineering geology and hydrogeologic condition of mine slope are studied, then, based on the analysis of mine landslide, factors which affect the stability of slope are disclosed, finally, combined with the geological and strata condition of mine district, software named RocLab is adopted to study the rockmass parameters of mine slope,so, mechanical parameters of rock mass of north side and east side of mine are presented,which provide basis for stability evaluation and destabilization prediction of mine slope. Due to Changba Lead-zinc Mine's transition from surface to underground mining in advance,a series of production and safety problems are brought, among which, the stability of slope is the most obvious problem. As result, it is necessary to carry out the stability evaluation and destabilization prediction of slope so as to ensure the safety production of mine. In this paper, firstly, the engineering geology and hydrogeologic condition of mine slope are studied, then, based on the analysis of mine landslide, factors which affect the stability of slope are disclosed, finally, combined with the geological and strata condition of mine district, software named RocLab is adopted to study the rockmass parameters of mine slope,so, mechanical parameters of rock mass of north side and east side of mine are presented,which provide basis for stability evaluation and destabilization prediction of mine slope.
Shanxi is a big province of mine,a mass of geo-environmental problems were produced because large-scale mining activity. This paper based on the detailed survey and analyse studying,considering geo-environmental problems including three kinds of mine-geologic disaster and mine-three- waste and mine-destroying of ground-water equilibria etc.And based on the analyticing developing character and disserved degree of geo-environmental problems in mines,this paper divide geo-environmental infection in mines into three area of infection graveness and infection hypo-graveness and infection common and 29 subregion. Shanxi is a big province of mine,a mass of geo-environmental problems were produced because large-scale mining activity. This paper based on the detailed survey and analyse studying,considering geo-environmental problems including three kinds of mine-geologic disaster and mine-three- waste and mine-destroying of ground-water equilibria etc.And based on the analyticing developing character and disserved degree of geo-environmental problems in mines,this paper divide geo-environmental infection in mines into three area of infection graveness and infection hypo-graveness and infection common and 29 subregion.
Although prestressed anchoring beam is a new technique for rock slope reinforcement and has some functions, such as drainage, monitoring and reinforcement, which ordinary anchoring cavern hasn't, it still hasn't better design method now. In the paper, the author combined the method of imbalance thrust force with the design of prestressed structure to solve not only slope stability analysis affected by design load and prestressing force of prestressed anchoring beam but also the design strength of anchoring beam structure. The new technique provides a kind of design method to prestressed anchor beam and provides design basis for application of the new technique in the engineering project. Although prestressed anchoring beam is a new technique for rock slope reinforcement and has some functions, such as drainage, monitoring and reinforcement, which ordinary anchoring cavern hasn't, it still hasn't better design method now. In the paper, the author combined the method of imbalance thrust force with the design of prestressed structure to solve not only slope stability analysis affected by design load and prestressing force of prestressed anchoring beam but also the design strength of anchoring beam structure. The new technique provides a kind of design method to prestressed anchor beam and provides design basis for application of the new technique in the engineering project.
There are three dam sites for Shaqian Power at the upriver, middle-river and downriver. Two big fissures were found along the left slope at the downriver dam, where an ancient landslide was confirmed. The stability of the landslide is important to select the place as dam site, and it also should be evaluated for the construction of the power. The boundary and geological characteristic were obtained according to field surveys. And the origin and deformation mechanism of the landslide were analyzed. Then the engineering geological model was build and the numeric modelling was carried out. The result gave the assessment of the stability of the landslide, which provided some reliable geological data for the chose of the dam site. There are three dam sites for Shaqian Power at the upriver, middle-river and downriver. Two big fissures were found along the left slope at the downriver dam, where an ancient landslide was confirmed. The stability of the landslide is important to select the place as dam site, and it also should be evaluated for the construction of the power. The boundary and geological characteristic were obtained according to field surveys. And the origin and deformation mechanism of the landslide were analyzed. Then the engineering geological model was build and the numeric modelling was carried out. The result gave the assessment of the stability of the landslide, which provided some reliable geological data for the chose of the dam site.
The first 750kV transmission line in China locates in the transitional area of Tebit plateau and loess plateau, which have very complicated geological environment. In the paper the influence and the characteristics of such main geological problems as structural stability, landslide, mud-rock flow, ground fractures, excavation area and loess collapsibility are illustrated. Conclusions on corresponding research methods and how to solve the problems are drawn according to the real condition of the project. The first 750kV transmission line in China locates in the transitional area of Tebit plateau and loess plateau, which have very complicated geological environment. In the paper the influence and the characteristics of such main geological problems as structural stability, landslide, mud-rock flow, ground fractures, excavation area and loess collapsibility are illustrated. Conclusions on corresponding research methods and how to solve the problems are drawn according to the real condition of the project.
Firstly, the basic information and physiognomy style of Karst Physiognomy of QiYueshan tunnel are introduced in this paper. There are multilayers in the surface karst cave of this area which have different scales and shapes. Secondly, it describes the characteristic of karst cave system of Deshengchang trough valley,including the development characteristics and conditions of Taiping cave and Wutongmiao cave. It also introduces the vertical zoning characteristics of karst cave system of Deshengchang trough valley including karst strongly developed strip, karst middling developed strip and karst weakly developed strip. Then the karst development rules of the area are introduced including karst development characteristics in the same direction, cranny and faultage area. At last the safety depth in given damaged area is predicted through FE method and the result is considered to be beneath 22.25m. Firstly, the basic information and physiognomy style of Karst Physiognomy of QiYueshan tunnel are introduced in this paper. There are multilayers in the surface karst cave of this area which have different scales and shapes. Secondly, it describes the characteristic of karst cave system of Deshengchang trough valley,including the development characteristics and conditions of Taiping cave and Wutongmiao cave. It also introduces the vertical zoning characteristics of karst cave system of Deshengchang trough valley including karst strongly developed strip, karst middling developed strip and karst weakly developed strip. Then the karst development rules of the area are introduced including karst development characteristics in the same direction, cranny and faultage area. At last the safety depth in given damaged area is predicted through FE method and the result is considered to be beneath 22.25m.
The ancient mine site of Tonglvshan was authorized by The Central People's Government of The People's Republic of China as nation-wide key cultural relics conservation unit in 1982, and was protected by building museum in 1984. Some ground displacement was observed in the second half of 2006, and formed three displacement areas: No.3 Road landslide, Lawn-Factory of quick-setting agent, and the differentia sedimentation of this museum. This displacement is characterized as typical mechanical behaviors: tensile crack, sedimentation settling, and clockwise twisting. The distribution of fissures is desribed as follows: parallel with the west slope, inclining free face, and dense near slope sparse far slope. This distribution is the result of side expand of west slope and dextrorotation inclining, which are caused by open mining of west mine site and blasting. A united surveying group is organized by many departments of the government of Huangshi City, and takes some emergency measures to control the intensive displacement such as patroling, pausing mining, punshing steal, and so on. Also, some important projects were conducted, including protection engineering of slope, safety monitoring, building repairment. And the protection regulations of Tonglvshan ancient mine site was legislated and efective. All the above measures were conducted to ensure the permanent protection of the world culture heritage. The ancient mine site of Tonglvshan was authorized by The Central People's Government of The People's Republic of China as nation-wide key cultural relics conservation unit in 1982, and was protected by building museum in 1984. Some ground displacement was observed in the second half of 2006, and formed three displacement areas: No.3 Road landslide, Lawn-Factory of quick-setting agent, and the differentia sedimentation of this museum. This displacement is characterized as typical mechanical behaviors: tensile crack, sedimentation settling, and clockwise twisting. The distribution of fissures is desribed as follows: parallel with the west slope, inclining free face, and dense near slope sparse far slope. This distribution is the result of side expand of west slope and dextrorotation inclining, which are caused by open mining of west mine site and blasting. A united surveying group is organized by many departments of the government of Huangshi City, and takes some emergency measures to control the intensive displacement such as patroling, pausing mining, punshing steal, and so on. Also, some important projects were conducted, including protection engineering of slope, safety monitoring, building repairment. And the protection regulations of Tonglvshan ancient mine site was legislated and efective. All the above measures were conducted to ensure the permanent protection of the world culture heritage.
Nonlinear FEM strength reduction is a slop stability analysis method which is widely cared in the geotechnical field. With the anti-shear parameters c- reduction, the nonlinear FEM model of rock slope reduced to instable status and the numerical non-convergence occurred simultaneously. And then the safety factor was obtained by c- reduction algorithm for which can be regarded as equal to stability factor . With a case study, the results of 2D analyses are analyzed, which matches the actual circumstance. The study results show that the stability safety factor of the rock slope can be obtained in a quick and effective way by using the finite element stress analysis method in combination with the finite element strength reduction method, which can provide certain basis for evaluation of rock slope stability. Nonlinear FEM strength reduction is a slop stability analysis method which is widely cared in the geotechnical field. With the anti-shear parameters c- reduction, the nonlinear FEM model of rock slope reduced to instable status and the numerical non-convergence occurred simultaneously. And then the safety factor was obtained by c- reduction algorithm for which can be regarded as equal to stability factor . With a case study, the results of 2D analyses are analyzed, which matches the actual circumstance. The study results show that the stability safety factor of the rock slope can be obtained in a quick and effective way by using the finite element stress analysis method in combination with the finite element strength reduction method, which can provide certain basis for evaluation of rock slope stability.
Silk Road has been recorded in history for its outstanding function to boost human civilization and progress. China is the starting point of Silk Road. There is a great deal of ancient sites of Silk Road in northwest China, the good protection of which is part of national sustainable development strategy as well as the development of the west strategy. Such ancient sites exist in certain geological environment, the change of it and geological disaster are the important causes of ancient sites damage. Under the guidance of earth system science, this paper formed the research frame of geological engineering environment and geological disaster prevention in the ancient site protection regions, and the major problems related to which were discussed as well. Silk Road has been recorded in history for its outstanding function to boost human civilization and progress. China is the starting point of Silk Road. There is a great deal of ancient sites of Silk Road in northwest China, the good protection of which is part of national sustainable development strategy as well as the development of the west strategy. Such ancient sites exist in certain geological environment, the change of it and geological disaster are the important causes of ancient sites damage. Under the guidance of earth system science, this paper formed the research frame of geological engineering environment and geological disaster prevention in the ancient site protection regions, and the major problems related to which were discussed as well.
The ancient constructions exist in certain geological environment. The whole aim of the site protection projects is to use engineering measures to make it adapt to the geological change. The regional geological engineering environment of the site location in northwest China is characterized by, firstly, the complex earth formation trellis and special land dynamics environment, secondly, relief alternating with mountains and basins and multiple rock and soil types, thirdly, the intense internal and external dynamic forces of geologic process, such as, fault activities, earthquakes, avalanches, landslides, debris flows, weathering, fourthly, little rainfall, much evaporation and wind, great difference in temperature, and frequent disaster weather event, lastly, fragility of ecology environment. The paper not only discussed the principle of the geological engineering environment regionalization of the ancient construction protection, but also put forward its design. The ancient constructions exist in certain geological environment. The whole aim of the site protection projects is to use engineering measures to make it adapt to the geological change. The regional geological engineering environment of the site location in northwest China is characterized by, firstly, the complex earth formation trellis and special land dynamics environment, secondly, relief alternating with mountains and basins and multiple rock and soil types, thirdly, the intense internal and external dynamic forces of geologic process, such as, fault activities, earthquakes, avalanches, landslides, debris flows, weathering, fourthly, little rainfall, much evaporation and wind, great difference in temperature, and frequent disaster weather event, lastly, fragility of ecology environment. The paper not only discussed the principle of the geological engineering environment regionalization of the ancient construction protection, but also put forward its design.
The conservation and reinforcement of earthen sites is extremely urgent. especially in northwest of china, because of the special geography and climate environment, soil sites are destroyed obviously. To prolong their life and make them exist for longer time, many effective materials have been invented during the period of conservation and reinforcement of earthen sites. In this article we researched on PS material and chose the soil of Jiaohe and Gaochang ancient cities. The reinforced raw and remoulded soil with PS has been tested their intensity, anti-drenching ability and anti-aeolian erosion ability etc. The intensity and durability of ancient city soil reinforced have been studied. A lot of experiments indoor indicate: after reinforced by PS material, the intensity, anti-drenching ability and anti-aeolian erosion ability of the soil have been improved obviously. It shows that PS material has clearly results of reinforcement, and it will offer valuable theory and direction for further use of PS material in conservation and reinforcement of soil site. The conservation and reinforcement of earthen sites is extremely urgent. especially in northwest of china, because of the special geography and climate environment, soil sites are destroyed obviously. To prolong their life and make them exist for longer time, many effective materials have been invented during the period of conservation and reinforcement of earthen sites. In this article we researched on PS material and chose the soil of Jiaohe and Gaochang ancient cities. The reinforced raw and remoulded soil with PS has been tested their intensity, anti-drenching ability and anti-aeolian erosion ability etc. The intensity and durability of ancient city soil reinforced have been studied. A lot of experiments indoor indicate: after reinforced by PS material, the intensity, anti-drenching ability and anti-aeolian erosion ability of the soil have been improved obviously. It shows that PS material has clearly results of reinforcement, and it will offer valuable theory and direction for further use of PS material in conservation and reinforcement of soil site.
The thesis applies theory and method of geological-engineer in research of relic's soil and regards it as a new type of special soil. It takes relic's soil in Jiaohe, Gaochang and Juyan Ruins for example to explain characters of physic, mechanics, collapsing, very soluble salt and dynamic about relic's soil, defines special character of it and makes expectation of research work on it. The thesis applies theory and method of geological-engineer in research of relic's soil and regards it as a new type of special soil. It takes relic's soil in Jiaohe, Gaochang and Juyan Ruins for example to explain characters of physic, mechanics, collapsing, very soluble salt and dynamic about relic's soil, defines special character of it and makes expectation of research work on it.
Based on the study on engineering geological conditions and development features of the Dongxinjiayuan landslide, formation of the landslide was analyzed and stability was assessed. Under normal conditions, the landslide is stable. Under the conditions that continuous rainfall or storm, the slope in the back of the scarp of the Dongxinjiayuan landslide is unstable. In order to protect the construction and properties of the local people from the landslide, the authors recommend some treatments such as upper drainage, slide driving force section cut and unloaded combines earth-retaining wall. Based on the study on engineering geological conditions and development features of the Dongxinjiayuan landslide, formation of the landslide was analyzed and stability was assessed. Under normal conditions, the landslide is stable. Under the conditions that continuous rainfall or storm, the slope in the back of the scarp of the Dongxinjiayuan landslide is unstable. In order to protect the construction and properties of the local people from the landslide, the authors recommend some treatments such as upper drainage, slide driving force section cut and unloaded combines earth-retaining wall.
With the consideration of the influencing factors of stability of the slop, the forecasting model based on the artificial neural network is introduced, then the neural network trained by many existent project examples. During the training process, contrasting the results that trainied by different functions. At last, forecast the stability of Shifo-temple Ⅰ、Ⅱ landslides, which locate along the Gaoyang-Xiakou rebuild road that in Xingshan county in Hubei province. Numerical example illustrates that the forecasting model can provide more accurate analyzing results, and also illustrates that the artificial neural network not only have well validity in the forecasting of stability of the slop, but also have nicer development foreground. With the consideration of the influencing factors of stability of the slop, the forecasting model based on the artificial neural network is introduced, then the neural network trained by many existent project examples. During the training process, contrasting the results that trainied by different functions. At last, forecast the stability of Shifo-temple Ⅰ、Ⅱ landslides, which locate along the Gaoyang-Xiakou rebuild road that in Xingshan county in Hubei province. Numerical example illustrates that the forecasting model can provide more accurate analyzing results, and also illustrates that the artificial neural network not only have well validity in the forecasting of stability of the slop, but also have nicer development foreground.
Others
This paper start with the analysis of weathering actuality of Longmen Grottoes in LuoYang, combines with the result of investigation of 3 caverns ( QianXi temple and HuangPuGong cave and Lu hole ) geological damage, we can divide the damage effect of Longmen Grottoes into mechanics effect、chemical effect and biology effect, it have analysed the environmental geological condition and solution to protect cavern of problem, and suggested that this kind of stone quality cultural relic is geological to protect the scheme of project, so as to study the accomplishment protect work for the stone quality cultural relic of similar condition have certain reference to take affect. This paper start with the analysis of weathering actuality of Longmen Grottoes in LuoYang, combines with the result of investigation of 3 caverns ( QianXi temple and HuangPuGong cave and Lu hole ) geological damage, we can divide the damage effect of Longmen Grottoes into mechanics effect、chemical effect and biology effect, it have analysed the environmental geological condition and solution to protect cavern of problem, and suggested that this kind of stone quality cultural relic is geological to protect the scheme of project, so as to study the accomplishment protect work for the stone quality cultural relic of similar condition have certain reference to take affect.
The reason why Dayan Pagoda inclined was given in the point of writers' view. Excessive gross loading intensity, incompatible foundation and soil improvement, the differences in their thickness and quality led to the early inclination. The influence of water environment caused its development in the late period of it. The reason why Dayan Pagoda inclined was given in the point of writers' view. Excessive gross loading intensity, incompatible foundation and soil improvement, the differences in their thickness and quality led to the early inclination. The influence of water environment caused its development in the late period of it.
Because Zaijiuting is an important landscape in Le Shan Grand Buddha, the world natural and cultural heritage, its dangerous rock reinforcement engineering is different with other general slope protection engineering. Stability of Zaijiuting dangerous rock was increased, by the design of Zaijiuting dangerous rock connected with behind mountain rock, according to the mountain and landform. At the same time, natural and original feature of rock face was kept, coordination of reinforcement engineering with surrounding landscape was firmed, thus influence of sight sense by the engineering structure was reduced to the list. Because Zaijiuting is an important landscape in Le Shan Grand Buddha, the world natural and cultural heritage, its dangerous rock reinforcement engineering is different with other general slope protection engineering. Stability of Zaijiuting dangerous rock was increased, by the design of Zaijiuting dangerous rock connected with behind mountain rock, according to the mountain and landform. At the same time, natural and original feature of rock face was kept, coordination of reinforcement engineering with surrounding landscape was firmed, thus influence of sight sense by the engineering structure was reduced to the list.
Tourist's safety and stability of original flatform at foot of Le Shan Grand Buddha were affected greatly, it was very necessary to improve the Buddha feet's flatform. On basis of engineering geology analysis of the Buddha, stability of the Buddha body was calculated, which supplied theoretical foundation to the design of flatform improving engineering. Structural stability was considered sufficiently when designing, the design original and conception were insisted that world cultural heritage be protected, original cultural relic and landscape be avoided man-made sabotage. The design scheme was adopted, in which the main structural were made of sticking-slope concrete wall and cantilever beam with poured concrete flatform plate in time. The new constructed flatform structural is coordinated with original surrounding landscape, the nature of the world cultural heritage is defended, the aesthetic effect of uniform is realized with the Buddha, flatform, mountain, and Minjiang river. Tourist's safety and stability of original flatform at foot of Le Shan Grand Buddha were affected greatly, it was very necessary to improve the Buddha feet's flatform. On basis of engineering geology analysis of the Buddha, stability of the Buddha body was calculated, which supplied theoretical foundation to the design of flatform improving engineering. Structural stability was considered sufficiently when designing, the design original and conception were insisted that world cultural heritage be protected, original cultural relic and landscape be avoided man-made sabotage. The design scheme was adopted, in which the main structural were made of sticking-slope concrete wall and cantilever beam with poured concrete flatform plate in time. The new constructed flatform structural is coordinated with original surrounding landscape, the nature of the world cultural heritage is defended, the aesthetic effect of uniform is realized with the Buddha, flatform, mountain, and Minjiang river.
The regional geologic structure of coastal zone of Liaoning Province is complex, where new tectonic movement is very violent, active faults are developed, and earthquake activity is frequent. Through the investigation of the terrain, landform and active structures of the coastal zone, the estimation on regional crustal stability of the coastal zone of Liaoning has been discussed in this paper base on the stability of geologic structure. The regional geologic structure of coastal zone of Liaoning Province is complex, where new tectonic movement is very violent, active faults are developed, and earthquake activity is frequent. Through the investigation of the terrain, landform and active structures of the coastal zone, the estimation on regional crustal stability of the coastal zone of Liaoning has been discussed in this paper base on the stability of geologic structure.
The behavior of land subsidence was obviously affected by layered settlement. It is proved by analyzing the settlement effect because of well pumping test before excavating Yi Shan Road station of Shanghai Rail Transit Line 9.The repeated change between elastic water yield and storage of the seventh confined aquifer is affecting soil layer settlement-heave movement, and the trend falls down. The nearest distance between Rail Transit Line 3 and the subway foundation pit is only 11m, when dewatering on a large scale, the environment effect can be improved in deep foundation pit dewatering by controlling layered settlement effectively through having an appropriate collocation of pumping wells, deepening diaphragm to 62m, reinforcing moisture layer and so on. The behavior of land subsidence was obviously affected by layered settlement. It is proved by analyzing the settlement effect because of well pumping test before excavating Yi Shan Road station of Shanghai Rail Transit Line 9.The repeated change between elastic water yield and storage of the seventh confined aquifer is affecting soil layer settlement-heave movement, and the trend falls down. The nearest distance between Rail Transit Line 3 and the subway foundation pit is only 11m, when dewatering on a large scale, the environment effect can be improved in deep foundation pit dewatering by controlling layered settlement effectively through having an appropriate collocation of pumping wells, deepening diaphragm to 62m, reinforcing moisture layer and so on.
This thesis introduced static equilibrium headland-bay beach theory and artificial beach nourishment technical and design methods, programmed the repair project in Western-beach of Beidaihe. The plan apply the mode of static equilibrium headland-bay, design the artificial headland using arc-jetty and detached breakwater in Western-beach, shaped three arc-bays which are in static equilibrium, considering the sea situation and supplied sands source, and design artificial beach nourishment profiles and method, bring the Western-beach become an opened and multifunction bathing place. The research have a demonstrating meaning to beach nourishment of our country. This thesis introduced static equilibrium headland-bay beach theory and artificial beach nourishment technical and design methods, programmed the repair project in Western-beach of Beidaihe. The plan apply the mode of static equilibrium headland-bay, design the artificial headland using arc-jetty and detached breakwater in Western-beach, shaped three arc-bays which are in static equilibrium, considering the sea situation and supplied sands source, and design artificial beach nourishment profiles and method, bring the Western-beach become an opened and multifunction bathing place. The research have a demonstrating meaning to beach nourishment of our country.
This paper introduces small piles of calces,sand and cement.According to engineering geological characteristics of soft foundation,small piles of calces,sand and cement is used for treating the soft foundation(filling of unclose-grained), the bearing capacity of composite foundation is greatly increased, both the bearing capacity and subsidence of composite foundation meets the need of engineering design through subsidence observation and laboratory experimentation, meanwhile, economy benefit of the method is also analyzed. Engineering application shows the method is well, and has several advantages: convenience, simpleness, rapid construction, little impact on surrounding and lost cost ect. So the method of small piles of calces, sand and cement has bright market prospect. This paper introduces small piles of calces,sand and cement.According to engineering geological characteristics of soft foundation,small piles of calces,sand and cement is used for treating the soft foundation(filling of unclose-grained), the bearing capacity of composite foundation is greatly increased, both the bearing capacity and subsidence of composite foundation meets the need of engineering design through subsidence observation and laboratory experimentation, meanwhile, economy benefit of the method is also analyzed. Engineering application shows the method is well, and has several advantages: convenience, simpleness, rapid construction, little impact on surrounding and lost cost ect. So the method of small piles of calces, sand and cement has bright market prospect.
By making use of ABAQUS finite element program, using Mohr-Columb constitute model of soil containing gas hydrate and based on the physical and strength parameters of soil before and after the gas hydrate dissociation, the stress and strain distributions of the pipe and sediment near the pipe are caculated under different range conditions of gas hydrates dissociation. The effects of gas hydrate dissociation on the pipe and sediment stability are analyzed and estimated. By making use of ABAQUS finite element program, using Mohr-Columb constitute model of soil containing gas hydrate and based on the physical and strength parameters of soil before and after the gas hydrate dissociation, the stress and strain distributions of the pipe and sediment near the pipe are caculated under different range conditions of gas hydrates dissociation. The effects of gas hydrate dissociation on the pipe and sediment stability are analyzed and estimated.
According to the information of the geophysical profiles, the paper analyses the basic characteristics and distribution regularity of engineering geoenvironmental factors of Liyuetan in Nansha Islands, the Southern South China Sea. The engineering geoenvironment study is a new research field of modern engineering geology. The paper introduces the concept of engineering geoenvironment including endogenic hazardous geological types (active faults,seismic activities and volcanic action) and exogenic hazardous geological types (dilapidation, landslip, buried sea-bed reef, Sea-bed mud hillock). According to the information of the geophysical profiles, the paper analyses the basic characteristics and distribution regularity of engineering geoenvironmental factors of Liyuetan in Nansha Islands, the Southern South China Sea. The engineering geoenvironment study is a new research field of modern engineering geology. The paper introduces the concept of engineering geoenvironment including endogenic hazardous geological types (active faults,seismic activities and volcanic action) and exogenic hazardous geological types (dilapidation, landslip, buried sea-bed reef, Sea-bed mud hillock).
There are various kinds of engineering geology factors around Weizhou Island and its northeast sea area, which have latent threat and hidden trouble to the marine exploitation activities and engineering construction. Based on recent observation data and historical data, we analyse the engineering geological types such as benthal obstacles, coral reefs, bedrockcropping out、high dip slope、sand liquefaction、paleo channel on the surface of seabed and shallow stratum in the study area. Their distribution and cause of formation are discussed, thus scientific information could be provided to marine resource exploitation and project construction, therefore the harmfulness caused by the geological disaster could be reduced or avoided. There are various kinds of engineering geology factors around Weizhou Island and its northeast sea area, which have latent threat and hidden trouble to the marine exploitation activities and engineering construction. Based on recent observation data and historical data, we analyse the engineering geological types such as benthal obstacles, coral reefs, bedrockcropping out、high dip slope、sand liquefaction、paleo channel on the surface of seabed and shallow stratum in the study area. Their distribution and cause of formation are discussed, thus scientific information could be provided to marine resource exploitation and project construction, therefore the harmfulness caused by the geological disaster could be reduced or avoided.
In order to discuss the method of evaluation the vulnerability of coastal system, This thesis according to the fundamental of economy,objectivity, maneuverability, representativeness, introduced the analytical hierarchy process(AHP) which based on the GIS, selected eight evaluation factors are as follows Storm-influenced Frequency, Change-rate To Relatively Sea Level, Coast Styles, Coast Erode-deposit Rate, Reach Coast Underwater Gradient, Ground Sedimentation Rate, Coastal Development Styles, Nearshore Water Quality, to evaluated the vulnerability of coastal system of Hebei Province. A mature evaluation method is adopted, the selected value factors accorded with the actual situation of the valued-region. In order to discuss the method of evaluation the vulnerability of coastal system, This thesis according to the fundamental of economy,objectivity, maneuverability, representativeness, introduced the analytical hierarchy process(AHP) which based on the GIS, selected eight evaluation factors are as follows Storm-influenced Frequency, Change-rate To Relatively Sea Level, Coast Styles, Coast Erode-deposit Rate, Reach Coast Underwater Gradient, Ground Sedimentation Rate, Coastal Development Styles, Nearshore Water Quality, to evaluated the vulnerability of coastal system of Hebei Province. A mature evaluation method is adopted, the selected value factors accorded with the actual situation of the valued-region.
More and more geophysical and borehole data accumulated in the Pearl River Estuary with the economic development which offer the possibilities to rebuilt the sedimentary history of the paleo-channels since Late Pleistocene. The paper analysis the shape, distribution and sedimentary environment of the paleo-channels in the Pearl River Estuary based on 2000 km high resolution shallow seismic profiles combine with borehole and chronology data, a paleo Pearl River pattern was rebuilt since Late Pleistocene in today's estuary. More and more geophysical and borehole data accumulated in the Pearl River Estuary with the economic development which offer the possibilities to rebuilt the sedimentary history of the paleo-channels since Late Pleistocene. The paper analysis the shape, distribution and sedimentary environment of the paleo-channels in the Pearl River Estuary based on 2000 km high resolution shallow seismic profiles combine with borehole and chronology data, a paleo Pearl River pattern was rebuilt since Late Pleistocene in today's estuary.
Wetland is one of the most important environmental Capitals, its ecological characteristics is differing to land and water, and is unique in hydrogeology under the inter-function of themselves and the special ecological function. Wetland geo-environment study is indispensable in Wetland study, Wetland plan and Wetland ecological recovery. The article briefly analyzes the Tong lake wetland evolution, and the reduction factor of the Wetland. Wetland is one of the most important environmental Capitals, its ecological characteristics is differing to land and water, and is unique in hydrogeology under the inter-function of themselves and the special ecological function. Wetland geo-environment study is indispensable in Wetland study, Wetland plan and Wetland ecological recovery. The article briefly analyzes the Tong lake wetland evolution, and the reduction factor of the Wetland.
Forest is one of the most important environmental Capitals, its ecological characteristics is a typical representative to the land ecosystem. Water cycling in the forest ecosystem is the important in the forest ecological function. Also is the most important energy and physical medium. Forest bio-hydrogeology investigation is indispensable in the Natural protecting study. The Nankun mountain natural protecting region bio-hydrogeology characteristics were analyzed in the article to bring the topic for further study together with the on going analysis. Forest is one of the most important environmental Capitals, its ecological characteristics is a typical representative to the land ecosystem. Water cycling in the forest ecosystem is the important in the forest ecological function. Also is the most important energy and physical medium. Forest bio-hydrogeology investigation is indispensable in the Natural protecting study. The Nankun mountain natural protecting region bio-hydrogeology characteristics were analyzed in the article to bring the topic for further study together with the on going analysis.
Debris flow is a main disaster type in north Tianshan highway in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The formation environment of debris flow disaster in north Tianshan highway in Xinjiang was analyzed in system from abundant debris flow materials, peculiar geomorphological character and the climate condition of foehn effect. The debris flow in the area was classified into slope debris flow and ditch debris flow, and the debris flow distributed centralized in the Lapat watershed area, the velocities calculation formula of each debris flow type was established. Two new techniques of shed drainage-diversion structure and debris flow tunnel which can be used to control the debris flow disaster in north Tianshan highway well were developed. The former technique was used to control the slope debris flow and the later was used to control the ditch debris flow, and each technique was applied to control the debris flow disaster in correspondence with K616 and K631 along Tianshan highway. The control effect of each technique was proved by physical model experiment in the room. The experiment result indicated that the proposed control technique was well practicable, the highway traffic can be unhindered during the debris flow breaking out. Debris flow is a main disaster type in north Tianshan highway in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The formation environment of debris flow disaster in north Tianshan highway in Xinjiang was analyzed in system from abundant debris flow materials, peculiar geomorphological character and the climate condition of foehn effect. The debris flow in the area was classified into slope debris flow and ditch debris flow, and the debris flow distributed centralized in the Lapat watershed area, the velocities calculation formula of each debris flow type was established. Two new techniques of shed drainage-diversion structure and debris flow tunnel which can be used to control the debris flow disaster in north Tianshan highway well were developed. The former technique was used to control the slope debris flow and the later was used to control the ditch debris flow, and each technique was applied to control the debris flow disaster in correspondence with K616 and K631 along Tianshan highway. The control effect of each technique was proved by physical model experiment in the room. The experiment result indicated that the proposed control technique was well practicable, the highway traffic can be unhindered during the debris flow breaking out.
Due to the influence of the human activity, the warming trend of global climate appears. The article have analyzed the relation of the migration of animals and plants with climate in the Loess plateau from animals and plants' fossil and historical documents as reference; it predicted that the global warming may be favorable for Loess plateau to restoring the beautiful mountains and rivers from the historical law. Due to the influence of the human activity, the warming trend of global climate appears. The article have analyzed the relation of the migration of animals and plants with climate in the Loess plateau from animals and plants' fossil and historical documents as reference; it predicted that the global warming may be favorable for Loess plateau to restoring the beautiful mountains and rivers from the historical law.
There is an incipient fault to long-period operation in the sector of embankment upon the slope, so it is important for long-time safety traffic to evaluate the inclined embankment of recent or future time. Stability assessment of railway slope roadbed in permafrost area is difficult from others, because the location of interface between frosting and thawing is an allimportant factor to the stability of the embankment. Though monitoring the features of temperature and displacement of embankment in the paper, the deformation laws of each section are analyzed in details and the appraisal models are built. There is an incipient fault to long-period operation in the sector of embankment upon the slope, so it is important for long-time safety traffic to evaluate the inclined embankment of recent or future time. Stability assessment of railway slope roadbed in permafrost area is difficult from others, because the location of interface between frosting and thawing is an allimportant factor to the stability of the embankment. Though monitoring the features of temperature and displacement of embankment in the paper, the deformation laws of each section are analyzed in details and the appraisal models are built.
Ascertaining the location face sliding is the key that side slope stability analysis and side slope govern. That displacement monitors law in a lot of method middle ascertaining the face sliding, deep settlement measurement is one of comparatively advanced means. The main body of a book concrete union project example, have discussed deep settlement measurement result how apply to ascertain the face sliding, but provide the project reference Ascertaining the location face sliding is the key that side slope stability analysis and side slope govern. That displacement monitors law in a lot of method middle ascertaining the face sliding, deep settlement measurement is one of comparatively advanced means. The main body of a book concrete union project example, have discussed deep settlement measurement result how apply to ascertain the face sliding, but provide the project reference
On the basis of investigation, the geological structure of the high slope of was analyzed, the deformation and destruction of high slope of loess and influencing factor were discussed. On the basis of investigation, the geological structure of the high slope of was analyzed, the deformation and destruction of high slope of loess and influencing factor were discussed.
Forecasting the position of crack at rear of rock slope is very useful for deformation monitoring and landslide controlling. Based on the theory of energy method, the author establishes a forecasting model used to ascertain crack's position at rear of rock slope. By means of strength reduction method, the function of forecasting the crack's position and safety factor can be deduced. At the basis of a typical case study, we can draw a conclusion that there are some intervals between back crack and slope shoulder; moreover, correctness of the new method has been validated. Forecasting the position of crack at rear of rock slope is very useful for deformation monitoring and landslide controlling. Based on the theory of energy method, the author establishes a forecasting model used to ascertain crack's position at rear of rock slope. By means of strength reduction method, the function of forecasting the crack's position and safety factor can be deduced. At the basis of a typical case study, we can draw a conclusion that there are some intervals between back crack and slope shoulder; moreover, correctness of the new method has been validated.
It is the basic demand for the treatment of a slope that the stability safety factor reached the designated value. Because a lot of uncertainty inherent in slope engineering, It is possible for a slope through treatment to be failure. Based on reliability analysis and economical risk analysis for the slope through treatment in the paper, the method of risk decision for the safety criteria of the high rock slope through treatment is discussed combined the practiced slope project. It is the basic demand for the treatment of a slope that the stability safety factor reached the designated value. Because a lot of uncertainty inherent in slope engineering, It is possible for a slope through treatment to be failure. Based on reliability analysis and economical risk analysis for the slope through treatment in the paper, the method of risk decision for the safety criteria of the high rock slope through treatment is discussed combined the practiced slope project.
In geo-environmentally fragile Northern Shannxi quite a few tensile and shear fissures were discovered in areas of filling during large scale excavation and filling operations for a 330kV substation resulting in work stoppage and ensuing investigations for the cause. After extensive engineering geological survey, borehole drilling, test-pitting, trenching as well as multi-approach laboratory shear tests and stability analyses, it was found that the selected site is located on a large, low stability landslide whose slide-bed is rectilinear and coincides with the plane of contact between the slide-mass loess and sandy mudstone, i.e.,the direction of sliding and dip angle of the slide-bed are the same as those of the monoclinic beds of rock (300°~310°,∠8°~12°). The sandy mudstones,outcropping at the forefront of the site,are not original-state bedrocks. Instead,they are slide debris. They obstructed and hampered drainage of the slide-mass and contributed to the formation of wide-spread weak soft layers on the slide-bed. As a triggering effect, the large-scale excavation and filling operations destroyed the state of equilibrium of the old landslide. As a result, parts of the old slid were reactivated and three unstable engieering-related landslides came into being. The lessons that can be drawn from a case of this kind are :in geo-environmentally fragile zones siting investigation should be emphasized; it is feasible to use residual shear strength parameters from soil samples tested in saturated state (c=6.6kPa,φ=5.6°) in stability analysis and computation for loess slides which are in direct contact with underlying monocliclic sandy mudstones with rectilinear slide-beds; and remediation approaches which coordinate use of silt arresters for preservation and increase of tillable land as well as environomental protection and use of retaining structures can have prospects of wide application. In geo-environmentally fragile Northern Shannxi quite a few tensile and shear fissures were discovered in areas of filling during large scale excavation and filling operations for a 330kV substation resulting in work stoppage and ensuing investigations for the cause. After extensive engineering geological survey, borehole drilling, test-pitting, trenching as well as multi-approach laboratory shear tests and stability analyses, it was found that the selected site is located on a large, low stability landslide whose slide-bed is rectilinear and coincides with the plane of contact between the slide-mass loess and sandy mudstone, i.e.,the direction of sliding and dip angle of the slide-bed are the same as those of the monoclinic beds of rock (300°~310°,∠8°~12°). The sandy mudstones,outcropping at the forefront of the site,are not original-state bedrocks. Instead,they are slide debris. They obstructed and hampered drainage of the slide-mass and contributed to the formation of wide-spread weak soft layers on the slide-bed. As a triggering effect, the large-scale excavation and filling operations destroyed the state of equilibrium of the old landslide. As a result, parts of the old slid were reactivated and three unstable engieering-related landslides came into being. The lessons that can be drawn from a case of this kind are :in geo-environmentally fragile zones siting investigation should be emphasized; it is feasible to use residual shear strength parameters from soil samples tested in saturated state (c=6.6kPa,φ=5.6°) in stability analysis and computation for loess slides which are in direct contact with underlying monocliclic sandy mudstones with rectilinear slide-beds; and remediation approaches which coordinate use of silt arresters for preservation and increase of tillable land as well as environomental protection and use of retaining structures can have prospects of wide application.
Soil, including the bed soil, dominating the nutritious of the animal and plant, and the Tonghu Wetland is rich of the kind of soil. As the resource, storage, and warehouse of the nutritious of the animal and plant, play an important key role in the Wetland ec0logical function from the suitability and stability of the soil elements for the animal and plant. Due to the heavy pollution from the around factories, the pollutants run from the ambient river, channel into the lake Marsh, furthermore, the pollution idling accompanying with the constant irrigation which resulting the lost or collection of the nutritious elements to appear the severe toxic in some heavy metals, resulting the unbalance of the micro elements in the Marsh. The article briefly studies the distribution, transfer, and settlement of the soil element based on the analysis of the Water environment and the main soil element distribution from the Marsh Soil study and combine with the existed studies to give suggestion and recommendation for protection plan. Soil, including the bed soil, dominating the nutritious of the animal and plant, and the Tonghu Wetland is rich of the kind of soil. As the resource, storage, and warehouse of the nutritious of the animal and plant, play an important key role in the Wetland ec0logical function from the suitability and stability of the soil elements for the animal and plant. Due to the heavy pollution from the around factories, the pollutants run from the ambient river, channel into the lake Marsh, furthermore, the pollution idling accompanying with the constant irrigation which resulting the lost or collection of the nutritious elements to appear the severe toxic in some heavy metals, resulting the unbalance of the micro elements in the Marsh. The article briefly studies the distribution, transfer, and settlement of the soil element based on the analysis of the Water environment and the main soil element distribution from the Marsh Soil study and combine with the existed studies to give suggestion and recommendation for protection plan.
Wetland is one of the most important environmental Capitals, its ecotypic characteristics is differing to land and water, and is unique in hydrogeology under the inter-function of themselves and the special ecotypic function. Water cycling is the important in the Wetland ecotypic function. Also is the most important energy and physical medium. Wetland hydrogeology characteristics analysis is indispensable in Wetland study, Wetland plan and Wetland ecotypic recovery. The article briefly analyzes the reduction factor of the Wetland to give suggestion and recommendation for protection plan to bring the topic for further study together with the on going analysis on Bio-hydrogeology characteristics in Tonghu Wetland area. Wetland is one of the most important environmental Capitals, its ecotypic characteristics is differing to land and water, and is unique in hydrogeology under the inter-function of themselves and the special ecotypic function. Water cycling is the important in the Wetland ecotypic function. Also is the most important energy and physical medium. Wetland hydrogeology characteristics analysis is indispensable in Wetland study, Wetland plan and Wetland ecotypic recovery. The article briefly analyzes the reduction factor of the Wetland to give suggestion and recommendation for protection plan to bring the topic for further study together with the on going analysis on Bio-hydrogeology characteristics in Tonghu Wetland area.
On bases of engineering example of loess landslide investigation in Qingdao--Yinchuan speedway which is in the North of Shaanxi. And according as much geologica disaster data of loess landslide . Probe into method of loess landslide investigation. On bases of engineering example of loess landslide investigation in Qingdao--Yinchuan speedway which is in the North of Shaanxi. And according as much geologica disaster data of loess landslide . Probe into method of loess landslide investigation.
he previous buildings in the Great Wall Station in the South Pole turned up some foundational morbidity, since they were under the extremely bad climate and construction conditions meanwhile. In order to satisfy the design and construction for the Great Wall and the Zhongshan Stations during the tenth-five-year-plan, the author had been to the South Pole together with the 21th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition, and carried out a great deal of study about the frozen soil investigating and the building compatibility splitting. The paper introduced the engineering geological conditions, the subterraneous temperature field and already genetic foundational morbidity, eventually expounded some pointed measures. he previous buildings in the Great Wall Station in the South Pole turned up some foundational morbidity, since they were under the extremely bad climate and construction conditions meanwhile. In order to satisfy the design and construction for the Great Wall and the Zhongshan Stations during the tenth-five-year-plan, the author had been to the South Pole together with the 21th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition, and carried out a great deal of study about the frozen soil investigating and the building compatibility splitting. The paper introduced the engineering geological conditions, the subterraneous temperature field and already genetic foundational morbidity, eventually expounded some pointed measures.
Because city-geology research starts late in China, it lacks effective regulation so far. Therefore, there are many problems in city-geology in china,such as "absence"、"over-specialized"、"lag behind"、"not unified". To solve these problems, we should make city-geology a part of City Planning,found an organization of city-geology, strengthen city-geology research, and bring up city-geological specialists. Because city-geology research starts late in China, it lacks effective regulation so far. Therefore, there are many problems in city-geology in china,such as "absence"、"over-specialized"、"lag behind"、"not unified". To solve these problems, we should make city-geology a part of City Planning,found an organization of city-geology, strengthen city-geology research, and bring up city-geological specialists.
Soil, including the bed soil, dominating the nutritious of the animal and plant, and the Tonghu Wetland is rich of the kind of soil. The article studies the difference of the heavy metal element through the analysis of the Marsh Soil and Water environment study. Discuss the reason for the Wetland Soil and Water environmental pollution characters, vegetation development, and the death of fish. Classify the Wetland Soil environmental pollution and identify the water nutritious degree in Tonghu Wetland Soil area to give suggestion and recommendation for protection plan. Soil, including the bed soil, dominating the nutritious of the animal and plant, and the Tonghu Wetland is rich of the kind of soil. The article studies the difference of the heavy metal element through the analysis of the Marsh Soil and Water environment study. Discuss the reason for the Wetland Soil and Water environmental pollution characters, vegetation development, and the death of fish. Classify the Wetland Soil environmental pollution and identify the water nutritious degree in Tonghu Wetland Soil area to give suggestion and recommendation for protection plan.
Longnan in is one of the most famous areas for debris flow. The disaster has greatly hampered the economic development of Longnan and the construction of highway. Through detailed geological and environmental investigation of the area, the research area locates in the northeastern fringe area of hai-Tibet plateau, Complicated geological structure, intense structural activities, high and steep slopes, mass and concentrative rainfall and improper human activities provide necessary preconditions for debris flow disaster. Then we analyze spatial and temporal characteristics of the debris flow distribution synthetically. Debris flows mainly exist in the Bailong River, Min River(the first-level branch of Bailong River) and Beiyu River and appear in July and August. Finally, we filtrate eight regionalization factors and ascertain their proportion by considering factual condition, these factors include: rock and soil characteristics, the distance from falutages, seism, gradient, relative altitude, rainfall from May to August, soil using and vegetation coverage, then we use GIS to finish the regionalization result of debris flow danger degree and achieve a good result. The study will have some instructional meaning on how to choose route and establish approaches and measures to deal with a geological disaster. Longnan in is one of the most famous areas for debris flow. The disaster has greatly hampered the economic development of Longnan and the construction of highway. Through detailed geological and environmental investigation of the area, the research area locates in the northeastern fringe area of hai-Tibet plateau, Complicated geological structure, intense structural activities, high and steep slopes, mass and concentrative rainfall and improper human activities provide necessary preconditions for debris flow disaster. Then we analyze spatial and temporal characteristics of the debris flow distribution synthetically. Debris flows mainly exist in the Bailong River, Min River(the first-level branch of Bailong River) and Beiyu River and appear in July and August. Finally, we filtrate eight regionalization factors and ascertain their proportion by considering factual condition, these factors include: rock and soil characteristics, the distance from falutages, seism, gradient, relative altitude, rainfall from May to August, soil using and vegetation coverage, then we use GIS to finish the regionalization result of debris flow danger degree and achieve a good result. The study will have some instructional meaning on how to choose route and establish approaches and measures to deal with a geological disaster.
In the deep geologicalrepositoryfor the disposalof high radioactive nuclearwaste, buffer/back-fill material system works as engineering barrier, hydraulic barrier, chemical barrier and transmissionof heat generated by nuclear waste, which is an efficient guaranteefor the long-term safety and stabilityof the repository. Historicalresults show that bentonite is an ideal buffer/back-fill material. Based on a review of lab tests results of bentonite, the characteristics of water retention and expansive pressure of Gaomiaozi bentonite, which has been chosen as the first choice for using as buffer/back-fill materials in deep disposal of high radioactive waste in China, has been tested and analyzed under unconfined and confined conditions by using osmotic and vapourphase techniques. Results show that, for lower suction, there is a clear difference in water retention properties of densely compacted Gaomiaozi bentonite between confined and unconfined conditions. For the Gaomaiozi Bentonite tested here, there is an exponential relationship between swelling pressure and dry density, and dry density is an important external factor to swelling pressure. All results obtained here are very important to the study of the swelling property of Gaomiaozi bentonite. In the deep geologicalrepositoryfor the disposalof high radioactive nuclearwaste, buffer/back-fill material system works as engineering barrier, hydraulic barrier, chemical barrier and transmissionof heat generated by nuclear waste, which is an efficient guaranteefor the long-term safety and stabilityof the repository. Historicalresults show that bentonite is an ideal buffer/back-fill material. Based on a review of lab tests results of bentonite, the characteristics of water retention and expansive pressure of Gaomiaozi bentonite, which has been chosen as the first choice for using as buffer/back-fill materials in deep disposal of high radioactive waste in China, has been tested and analyzed under unconfined and confined conditions by using osmotic and vapourphase techniques. Results show that, for lower suction, there is a clear difference in water retention properties of densely compacted Gaomiaozi bentonite between confined and unconfined conditions. For the Gaomaiozi Bentonite tested here, there is an exponential relationship between swelling pressure and dry density, and dry density is an important external factor to swelling pressure. All results obtained here are very important to the study of the swelling property of Gaomiaozi bentonite.
A modified limit equilibrium method is presented in this paper. This method considers the interaction forces between every two elements of soils. The orientation of the shear forces are determined by the grade of slope. This method is much close to practice. Some conditions are analyzed according to this method, including the effects of the change characteristics of the angle of slide faces, the acceleration of earthquake and the water condition in the slope. The results are compared with that of the circle slip method. A modified limit equilibrium method is presented in this paper. This method considers the interaction forces between every two elements of soils. The orientation of the shear forces are determined by the grade of slope. This method is much close to practice. Some conditions are analyzed according to this method, including the effects of the change characteristics of the angle of slide faces, the acceleration of earthquake and the water condition in the slope. The results are compared with that of the circle slip method.
The physical and mechanical properties of expansive soils were discussed in this paper. Relevant geotechnical experimentswere performed and the principal internal factors and external conditions, which determine the expansibility and contractibility of expansive soils, were obtained. In order to improve the self physical and mechanical properties of expansive soils, several disposal programs, in the two facets of ground treatment and engineering construction respectively, were adopted to solve the hazard to the highway resulted from the expansibility and contractibility of expansive soils roadbed. According to the application in the engineering, it is proved that these measurements were effective. The physical and mechanical properties of expansive soils were discussed in this paper. Relevant geotechnical experimentswere performed and the principal internal factors and external conditions, which determine the expansibility and contractibility of expansive soils, were obtained. In order to improve the self physical and mechanical properties of expansive soils, several disposal programs, in the two facets of ground treatment and engineering construction respectively, were adopted to solve the hazard to the highway resulted from the expansibility and contractibility of expansive soils roadbed. According to the application in the engineering, it is proved that these measurements were effective.
Through compression experiment on the soil columns from the Pearl River Delta and quantitative study of the microstructure variations of the pressed mud column, the author obtains the formulas for calculating the unit and total settlements with depths under a certain pressure. On the basis, the paper further discusses the relationship between the content of natural water in soft soil and the settlement value under a certain load, and corrects the parameter "c" of the formula for total settlement. These formulas should be helpful for the calculation of settlement value during designations of engineering Through compression experiment on the soil columns from the Pearl River Delta and quantitative study of the microstructure variations of the pressed mud column, the author obtains the formulas for calculating the unit and total settlements with depths under a certain pressure. On the basis, the paper further discusses the relationship between the content of natural water in soft soil and the settlement value under a certain load, and corrects the parameter "c" of the formula for total settlement. These formulas should be helpful for the calculation of settlement value during designations of engineering
In the geo-technical engineering investigation, a great deal of geo-technical testing and analysis should be carried out, and the testing results are reference to evaluate the engineering geological characteristic of different sites. However, some experimental results do not agree with the site characteristic in practice due to various factors. The reason that causes this unconformity should be analyzed and studied, while some problems must occure if only experimental results are used to evluate the engineering geological characteristic of a site. According to a case study, the experimental results of rock compressive strength were analyzed. The results showed that analysis on experimental data is important and instructive. In the geo-technical engineering investigation, a great deal of geo-technical testing and analysis should be carried out, and the testing results are reference to evaluate the engineering geological characteristic of different sites. However, some experimental results do not agree with the site characteristic in practice due to various factors. The reason that causes this unconformity should be analyzed and studied, while some problems must occure if only experimental results are used to evluate the engineering geological characteristic of a site. According to a case study, the experimental results of rock compressive strength were analyzed. The results showed that analysis on experimental data is important and instructive.
The additional stress system of mass is a complex and nonlinear system with credibility, randomicity and internal randomicity. Chaos experiments are designed to further reveal the characters of additional stress system. Not only large number of develop patterns about the additional stress system are obtained; the system is also verified to be an Chaos system with main development pattern through the Chaos calculation from the experimental data. A theory models are established based on the theory analysis and the experimental results which describe the Chaos characters of the soil additional stress system. The additional stress system of mass is a complex and nonlinear system with credibility, randomicity and internal randomicity. Chaos experiments are designed to further reveal the characters of additional stress system. Not only large number of develop patterns about the additional stress system are obtained; the system is also verified to be an Chaos system with main development pattern through the Chaos calculation from the experimental data. A theory models are established based on the theory analysis and the experimental results which describe the Chaos characters of the soil additional stress system.
For railway-bridge abutment, the fill soil is easy to produce large different settlement in the course of consolidation settlement when the static state and dynamic state irregularity are all concurrent. It is because there is a stiffness difference in the linking part of abutment structure and soft embankment and the repeating action of train loading in abutment trail. This phenomena will become serious with the increasing of train's velocity and axle load. Therefore, it is very important to study the foundation under rail of high speed railway abutment. On the other hand, Subgrade compaction quality has a direct influence on the heavy load railway and its transportation safety. Because the need of the fill soil using in subgrade and the compaction standard is low as well as the checking frequency is little, the existing railway line subgrade technique and state is bad which has become the main weak aspect of the railway and threaten the safety of transportation. And the work which have been done is introduced in this paper and is used for reference of the methods. Firstly, based on the railway ministry project-existing railway line railway-bridge abutment subgrade and rail strengthen research, we have tested Shuo-Huang railway 170th bridge and railway-bridge abutment subgrade in field. The testing projects include geology seismic test. The results reflect the subgrade quality and problems behind this abutment. Then the countermeasures are brought forward to strengthen the subgrade aspects which need deal with. The plane piles and slanting piles are used associatively has a more obvious effect. The strengthening impact is also simulated by FE procedure and the results are satisfied. For railway-bridge abutment, the fill soil is easy to produce large different settlement in the course of consolidation settlement when the static state and dynamic state irregularity are all concurrent. It is because there is a stiffness difference in the linking part of abutment structure and soft embankment and the repeating action of train loading in abutment trail. This phenomena will become serious with the increasing of train's velocity and axle load. Therefore, it is very important to study the foundation under rail of high speed railway abutment. On the other hand, Subgrade compaction quality has a direct influence on the heavy load railway and its transportation safety. Because the need of the fill soil using in subgrade and the compaction standard is low as well as the checking frequency is little, the existing railway line subgrade technique and state is bad which has become the main weak aspect of the railway and threaten the safety of transportation. And the work which have been done is introduced in this paper and is used for reference of the methods. Firstly, based on the railway ministry project-existing railway line railway-bridge abutment subgrade and rail strengthen research, we have tested Shuo-Huang railway 170th bridge and railway-bridge abutment subgrade in field. The testing projects include geology seismic test. The results reflect the subgrade quality and problems behind this abutment. Then the countermeasures are brought forward to strengthen the subgrade aspects which need deal with. The plane piles and slanting piles are used associatively has a more obvious effect. The strengthening impact is also simulated by FE procedure and the results are satisfied.
Using Grapher Automation can draw the graph of standard penetration test quickly, simply modified the template to adapt the vary graph type. By the researching of DXF file format and second editing, soled the problem of exporting the Chinese character. Using Grapher Automation can draw the graph of standard penetration test quickly, simply modified the template to adapt the vary graph type. By the researching of DXF file format and second editing, soled the problem of exporting the Chinese character.
Cofferdam, which is the waterproof cofferdam build cushion cap and foundation underwater, can avoid the underwater work, then to promote the work efficiency. During the operation of cofferdam with steel sheet pile, pile declivity, adhesion of the pile to the adjacent one and hard to lock between piles take place usually to delay the construction speed. To ensure the verticality of piles is critical to solve these problems. Quality of Cofferdam with steel sheet pile may be guaranteed by attentive considerations of characteristics of strata, flow rate and the type of the steel sheet piles, with choosing proper styles of pile driving together. Meanwhile, to emphasize monitoring timely and then adjust the inclination of the piles in time play important role to improve the quality of cofferdam. Tianxingzhou Bridge across Yangtze River for highway and railway in Wuhan, which is under construction, has some piers underwater and need cofferdam. The 59th pier is chosen as an example for choosing and checking computations of cofferdam with steel sheet pile. By the Inside sustainer calculation and construction of the cofferdam and analysis, some experiences are proposed for other projects using for reference. Cofferdam, which is the waterproof cofferdam build cushion cap and foundation underwater, can avoid the underwater work, then to promote the work efficiency. During the operation of cofferdam with steel sheet pile, pile declivity, adhesion of the pile to the adjacent one and hard to lock between piles take place usually to delay the construction speed. To ensure the verticality of piles is critical to solve these problems. Quality of Cofferdam with steel sheet pile may be guaranteed by attentive considerations of characteristics of strata, flow rate and the type of the steel sheet piles, with choosing proper styles of pile driving together. Meanwhile, to emphasize monitoring timely and then adjust the inclination of the piles in time play important role to improve the quality of cofferdam. Tianxingzhou Bridge across Yangtze River for highway and railway in Wuhan, which is under construction, has some piers underwater and need cofferdam. The 59th pier is chosen as an example for choosing and checking computations of cofferdam with steel sheet pile. By the Inside sustainer calculation and construction of the cofferdam and analysis, some experiences are proposed for other projects using for reference.
It is very important to compressive strength of concrete that the concrete is in the optimum curing condition. It is discussed how the humidity, temperature and age of curing influence the compressive strength of concrete in this text. It is elicited that humidity of curing is the most influence on compressive strength of concrete. The early curing is the optimal way to enhance compressive strength of concrete. The compressive strength of Fly ash concrete is the most sensitive to different curing conditions. It is very important to compressive strength of concrete that the concrete is in the optimum curing condition. It is discussed how the humidity, temperature and age of curing influence the compressive strength of concrete in this text. It is elicited that humidity of curing is the most influence on compressive strength of concrete. The early curing is the optimal way to enhance compressive strength of concrete. The compressive strength of Fly ash concrete is the most sensitive to different curing conditions.
With the fast development of the economy and society in China, a better and convenient transportation is needed, especially that freeway and tour highway should be build more and more. The complex transportation system not only needs a integrate harmony of good 3-D spatial shape and lognitudinal, horizontal & cross sections, but requires a good harmony of road sight and natrual view, human sight. The opinion and outline for the couple of highway sight and environment was introduced and discussed in this paper. It is suggested that highway construction should optimize the function and sight, and the environment should be protected. With the fast development of the economy and society in China, a better and convenient transportation is needed, especially that freeway and tour highway should be build more and more. The complex transportation system not only needs a integrate harmony of good 3-D spatial shape and lognitudinal, horizontal & cross sections, but requires a good harmony of road sight and natrual view, human sight. The opinion and outline for the couple of highway sight and environment was introduced and discussed in this paper. It is suggested that highway construction should optimize the function and sight, and the environment should be protected.
The economy is progressing rapidly and Geological environmenta problems is aggravated gradually. The text is discuss the geophysical method to application in geological environmental disasters in mine,and afford geological gist for geological environmental disasters. The economy is progressing rapidly and Geological environmenta problems is aggravated gradually. The text is discuss the geophysical method to application in geological environmental disasters in mine,and afford geological gist for geological environmental disasters.
The text introduce "3-highs" electrical method to detecting Karst caverns and soil caverns,combining with the site of geoelectric model,and get a same result through 2 kind of scale-setting。The result of exploration is inosculate with drilling. The text introduce "3-highs" electrical method to detecting Karst caverns and soil caverns,combining with the site of geoelectric model,and get a same result through 2 kind of scale-setting。The result of exploration is inosculate with drilling.
The way to detect the length of the reinforcement cage in the cast-in-situ bored pile by the traditional 'mise-a-la-masse' method is introduced. Results of the theory analysis and the modern pile test indicate that the bottom of the reinforcement cage corresponds to the minimum of the electric potential gradient curve and the inflexion of the electric potential curve. The practice shows that the way is effective, practicable, fast. The way to detect the length of the reinforcement cage in the cast-in-situ bored pile by the traditional 'mise-a-la-masse' method is introduced. Results of the theory analysis and the modern pile test indicate that the bottom of the reinforcement cage corresponds to the minimum of the electric potential gradient curve and the inflexion of the electric potential curve. The practice shows that the way is effective, practicable, fast.
According to demand of karst geology survey of foundation piles' bottom at a bridge's east suspension tower, the synthesis survey technology was adopted to karst geology survey of each foundation piles' bottom for the engineering, in which electromagnetic wave reflection method was the main method, fitted with high density electrical method and acoustic wave reflection method. It was introduced in detail with survey principle and process and effects of synthesis analysis of the three methods. According to the analysis of survey, rock was relatively more complete in 30 meters depth in total, only partial area was relatively fractured, some clay blanket and soft mud interlayer were filled between joint planes, no large-scale or greatly large-scale karst cavities existed. Proved by drilling and brazing, survey effect was agreement with real geology condition. It was indicated that the synthesis survey technology could be extended to karst geology survey for other same engineering. According to demand of karst geology survey of foundation piles' bottom at a bridge's east suspension tower, the synthesis survey technology was adopted to karst geology survey of each foundation piles' bottom for the engineering, in which electromagnetic wave reflection method was the main method, fitted with high density electrical method and acoustic wave reflection method. It was introduced in detail with survey principle and process and effects of synthesis analysis of the three methods. According to the analysis of survey, rock was relatively more complete in 30 meters depth in total, only partial area was relatively fractured, some clay blanket and soft mud interlayer were filled between joint planes, no large-scale or greatly large-scale karst cavities existed. Proved by drilling and brazing, survey effect was agreement with real geology condition. It was indicated that the synthesis survey technology could be extended to karst geology survey for other same engineering.
According to the constructing characteristic and possible major engineering geology problems in the tunnel anchor engineering of Barlinghe Bridge, on the basis of research state of detective technology for injecting effect, the synthesis detective technology was adopted, in which directive method was connected with indirective method, and indirective method was the main method. The detection was done through core-drill method, comparison analysis of detective data of before-after injecting by geology radar, and comparison analysis of data by acoustic wave computer-graphic technology. In the end, definite detective conclusion and corresponding constructing way were suggested. According to the constructing characteristic and possible major engineering geology problems in the tunnel anchor engineering of Barlinghe Bridge, on the basis of research state of detective technology for injecting effect, the synthesis detective technology was adopted, in which directive method was connected with indirective method, and indirective method was the main method. The detection was done through core-drill method, comparison analysis of detective data of before-after injecting by geology radar, and comparison analysis of data by acoustic wave computer-graphic technology. In the end, definite detective conclusion and corresponding constructing way were suggested.
The mortar workability called the mortar the work related, its performance quality, affects the project operation and the construction quality directly.The mortar micro froth medicinal preparation is one kind of new building material, after mixes in the mortar to be able obviously to improve the construction mortar the workability energy, is advantageous for the construction operation, enhances the working efficiency, the economic efficiency is remarkable. The mortar workability called the mortar the work related, its performance quality, affects the project operation and the construction quality directly.The mortar micro froth medicinal preparation is one kind of new building material, after mixes in the mortar to be able obviously to improve the construction mortar the workability energy, is advantageous for the construction operation, enhances the working efficiency, the economic efficiency is remarkable.
Recently, with rapid developments in constructions for tall, huge, deep and heavy structures in China, piles may often bear cyclic loading. An apparatus is therefore needed for pile model tests under cyclic loading in research and application. Referred to related researches, a specific testing system, which may be used for pile model tests under cyclic loading, was developed integrated with loading and measuring devices in a large steel vessel. According to the results of typical tests, it has been found that the apparatus can model fundamental bearing aspects of a single pile under cyclic loading and produce stable and accurate data during tests. Recently, with rapid developments in constructions for tall, huge, deep and heavy structures in China, piles may often bear cyclic loading. An apparatus is therefore needed for pile model tests under cyclic loading in research and application. Referred to related researches, a specific testing system, which may be used for pile model tests under cyclic loading, was developed integrated with loading and measuring devices in a large steel vessel. According to the results of typical tests, it has been found that the apparatus can model fundamental bearing aspects of a single pile under cyclic loading and produce stable and accurate data during tests.
The technique of high-resolution seismic reflection profiling was applied to explore sand-stone type uranium deposit in recent years, and seismic facies analysis is crucial and central part for the technique. The theory of seismic facies analysis was introduce firstly in this paper, and the features of seismic facies was analyzed for sand-stone type uranium deposit. Some case studies showed that the technique is feasible and effective to explore sand-stone type uranium deposit. The technique of high-resolution seismic reflection profiling was applied to explore sand-stone type uranium deposit in recent years, and seismic facies analysis is crucial and central part for the technique. The theory of seismic facies analysis was introduce firstly in this paper, and the features of seismic facies was analyzed for sand-stone type uranium deposit. Some case studies showed that the technique is feasible and effective to explore sand-stone type uranium deposit.
Based on the statistic rock fracture data in situ, in the process of 3-D fracture network simulation technique, the method for the 3D equivalent conductivity of fracture network and porous media is the key problem of rock hydraulics. However, the porous media flow model is the most practical in the hydraulic geotechnical engineering, and the conductivity of fractured rock is very difficult to be specified. According to the character of conductivity tensor, equality in flux and the same condition in the boundary, a new method of second-order conductivity tensor is derived from representative volume element of 3-D fracture network simulation. As the result, an example is presented to prove that the method is reasonable. The method proposed in the paper provides a practical technique for exterminating permeability tensor of fractured rock by fracture survey, and this will promote the developing of rock hydraulics. Based on the statistic rock fracture data in situ, in the process of 3-D fracture network simulation technique, the method for the 3D equivalent conductivity of fracture network and porous media is the key problem of rock hydraulics. However, the porous media flow model is the most practical in the hydraulic geotechnical engineering, and the conductivity of fractured rock is very difficult to be specified. According to the character of conductivity tensor, equality in flux and the same condition in the boundary, a new method of second-order conductivity tensor is derived from representative volume element of 3-D fracture network simulation. As the result, an example is presented to prove that the method is reasonable. The method proposed in the paper provides a practical technique for exterminating permeability tensor of fractured rock by fracture survey, and this will promote the developing of rock hydraulics.
In the soft soil,the tunnel excavating often induce the deformation of the ground. Because the city tunnel constructs in the area where lots of buildings have been built crowdedly, the damage of the soil deformation around structure will be noticeable. At the same time, the structure which constructs in the vicinity of the tunnel will be able to cause deformation of the tunnel inevitably. This article mainly elaborated the influencing research results which include that the present tunnel construction cause the deformation to the building,the underground utilities,the pile foundation,the tunnel,the foundation pit and also the adjacent structure construction to the tunnel,proposing the topic and method which need further to study. In the soft soil,the tunnel excavating often induce the deformation of the ground. Because the city tunnel constructs in the area where lots of buildings have been built crowdedly, the damage of the soil deformation around structure will be noticeable. At the same time, the structure which constructs in the vicinity of the tunnel will be able to cause deformation of the tunnel inevitably. This article mainly elaborated the influencing research results which include that the present tunnel construction cause the deformation to the building,the underground utilities,the pile foundation,the tunnel,the foundation pit and also the adjacent structure construction to the tunnel,proposing the topic and method which need further to study.
Geological hazard assessment is important content to study harmony of human being and earth, which can afford the basic gist for prophase work of the large-scale engineering build. Two basic factors such as harmfulness of historical, harmfulness of latent disaster and eight relevant estimate factors is selected.Fuzzy synthetical evaluation method is adopted to evaluate the danger level geological hazard in the hydropower station construction of LianLu,GanSu Province. Result indicate:geological hazard level in river and the mountai basin arear is middle, geological hazard level is weak in medium mountain arear. Geological hazard assessment is important content to study harmony of human being and earth, which can afford the basic gist for prophase work of the large-scale engineering build. Two basic factors such as harmfulness of historical, harmfulness of latent disaster and eight relevant estimate factors is selected.Fuzzy synthetical evaluation method is adopted to evaluate the danger level geological hazard in the hydropower station construction of LianLu,GanSu Province. Result indicate:geological hazard level in river and the mountai basin arear is middle, geological hazard level is weak in medium mountain arear.
It is serious to the influence of geological hazard on the military engineering. But the department concerned doesn't pay attention to geological hazard and the awareness of prevention and reduction disasters is not enough. For the safety of the military engineering, the category and characteristics of geological hazard are introduced. The influence of geological hazard on the military engineering is analyzed. The way to prevent and reduce disasters is put forward. It is serious to the influence of geological hazard on the military engineering. But the department concerned doesn't pay attention to geological hazard and the awareness of prevention and reduction disasters is not enough. For the safety of the military engineering, the category and characteristics of geological hazard are introduced. The influence of geological hazard on the military engineering is analyzed. The way to prevent and reduce disasters is put forward.
The code don't prescribe specially for large diameter rigid pile composite ground in gravel soil, The engineer case in this paper successfully put its design and construction for this condition in practice, and helpful to direct the similar project in some degree. The code don't prescribe specially for large diameter rigid pile composite ground in gravel soil, The engineer case in this paper successfully put its design and construction for this condition in practice, and helpful to direct the similar project in some degree.
The characteristic of mass contrete was summarized, and some qualitative problems caused by this structure was described such as cracks. It was shown by the relative analysis that stresses of temperature and shrink were the main factor of causing of cracks. So it is nessary to take some measures to control stresses of temperature and shrink. For example, the mix proportion design should be adjusted to decrease the usage of concrete and to restraint heat of hydration in the preparatory phase. During the construction, some key details should be considered well such as construction order, vibrating times, nleeding and surface treatment. Also, some insulation and humid measures are nessary to satisfy the changes of humidity and temperature. The characteristic of mass contrete was summarized, and some qualitative problems caused by this structure was described such as cracks. It was shown by the relative analysis that stresses of temperature and shrink were the main factor of causing of cracks. So it is nessary to take some measures to control stresses of temperature and shrink. For example, the mix proportion design should be adjusted to decrease the usage of concrete and to restraint heat of hydration in the preparatory phase. During the construction, some key details should be considered well such as construction order, vibrating times, nleeding and surface treatment. Also, some insulation and humid measures are nessary to satisfy the changes of humidity and temperature.
Based on the geological condition and foundation treatment method of the power plant project in QinZhou,this paper studied the key point of quality control during the treatment project and the possible flaw pile during construction,preventive measures and solutions are suggested.On this basis,the method of numerical simulation was used,a model of flaw pile is stalished,the plastic zone,the stress,the displacement of different parts of flaw pile are calculated,and a possible influence of the flaw is analyzed.Some useful guidance of dealing with the incidents during the construction of cast-in-place pile for engineers are given in the paper and a new thinking for mechanism of flaw pile is provided. Based on the geological condition and foundation treatment method of the power plant project in QinZhou,this paper studied the key point of quality control during the treatment project and the possible flaw pile during construction,preventive measures and solutions are suggested.On this basis,the method of numerical simulation was used,a model of flaw pile is stalished,the plastic zone,the stress,the displacement of different parts of flaw pile are calculated,and a possible influence of the flaw is analyzed.Some useful guidance of dealing with the incidents during the construction of cast-in-place pile for engineers are given in the paper and a new thinking for mechanism of flaw pile is provided.
The paper introduces the protection of anchored frame beam used in the slope of expressway in Hubei province. The idea of beam,soil and soil nail combined together is applied to the protection of slope.. Also the theory of Winkler groundsill beam and half-infinite elastomer is used in the technology. The effect of protection is remarkable by numerical analysis and local construction. The paper introduces the protection of anchored frame beam used in the slope of expressway in Hubei province. The idea of beam,soil and soil nail combined together is applied to the protection of slope.. Also the theory of Winkler groundsill beam and half-infinite elastomer is used in the technology. The effect of protection is remarkable by numerical analysis and local construction.
Whether the model test data can be extrapolated to the prototype scale and so give a sensible assessment of its behavior is based on the similarity between the model and corresponding prototype, so it is necessary to follow appropriate scaling laws in choosing model material. Because of the restriction on geometry, it is important to assess the relative effects of key parameters to replicate the essential features of the prototype. Model material including geogrid, plastic drain, foundation, embankment, sand cushion will be discussed in this paper in centrifuge modeling of embankment on soft clay reinforced with geogrid. Whether the model test data can be extrapolated to the prototype scale and so give a sensible assessment of its behavior is based on the similarity between the model and corresponding prototype, so it is necessary to follow appropriate scaling laws in choosing model material. Because of the restriction on geometry, it is important to assess the relative effects of key parameters to replicate the essential features of the prototype. Model material including geogrid, plastic drain, foundation, embankment, sand cushion will be discussed in this paper in centrifuge modeling of embankment on soft clay reinforced with geogrid.
The Fundamental Geo-Spatial Database is one of the most important composition of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure(NSDI ).Based on the needing of the development of geospatial database,the author puts for-ward several key technologies to build geospatial databases,including spatial reference system Data updating and historical data management,metadata and data dictionary,layering of Geo-Spatial data infomation,quality control of spatial data,WebGIS technology and database security. Every technology is analyzed in this paper. The Fundamental Geo-Spatial Database is one of the most important composition of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure(NSDI ).Based on the needing of the development of geospatial database,the author puts for-ward several key technologies to build geospatial databases,including spatial reference system Data updating and historical data management,metadata and data dictionary,layering of Geo-Spatial data infomation,quality control of spatial data,WebGIS technology and database security. Every technology is analyzed in this paper.
The seismic refraction method is commonly used to determine the lithology and stratigraphic geometry of geological sites. Beyond this application there is also the potential to extract additional velocity-related information such as mechanical properties of soils and rocks. However, this requires a reliable model of the subsurface velocity variations. Refraction data, P- and SH-wave first arrivals, and surface waves were analyzed using three different techniques: delay-time in combination with ray-tracing, tomography and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Results from the first two techniques were compared, which showed that sharp high-contrasting layering is best imaged by the traditional method, delay-time followed by ray-tracing. The tomographic method was unable to detect the water table in the P-wave survey but resolved near-surface gradational velocity changes. On the other hand, in the SH-wave survey the traditional method was not useful because of gradually increasing velocities, which were better suited to the tomographic method. Furthermore, to produce spatially detailed velocity-variation models the tomographic or the MASW methods are applicable. The MASW model showed somewhat lower velocities compared to the SH-refraction tomographic model and, in contrast, showed inverted velocity gradients. This study also presents a comparison between the shear moduli measured in situ, i.e. calculated from shear wave velocities, and determined using empirical relationships. The empirical relationship for sand gives higher values for shear moduli than those measured in situ.. 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. The seismic refraction method is commonly used to determine the lithology and stratigraphic geometry of geological sites. Beyond this application there is also the potential to extract additional velocity-related information such as mechanical properties of soils and rocks. However, this requires a reliable model of the subsurface velocity variations. Refraction data, P- and SH-wave first arrivals, and surface waves were analyzed using three different techniques: delay-time in combination with ray-tracing, tomography and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Results from the first two techniques were compared, which showed that sharp high-contrasting layering is best imaged by the traditional method, delay-time followed by ray-tracing. The tomographic method was unable to detect the water table in the P-wave survey but resolved near-surface gradational velocity changes. On the other hand, in the SH-wave survey the traditional method was not useful because of gradually increasing velocities, which were better suited to the tomographic method. Furthermore, to produce spatially detailed velocity-variation models the tomographic or the MASW methods are applicable. The MASW model showed somewhat lower velocities compared to the SH-refraction tomographic model and, in contrast, showed inverted velocity gradients. This study also presents a comparison between the shear moduli measured in situ, i.e. calculated from shear wave velocities, and determined using empirical relationships. The empirical relationship for sand gives higher values for shear moduli than those measured in situ.. 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The data of the published papers of Journal of Engineering was analysized and compared with the related journlals,to improve the development of the Journal of Engineering Geology. The data of the published papers of Journal of Engineering was analysized and compared with the related journlals,to improve the development of the Journal of Engineering Geology.