2006 Vol. 14, No. S1

Others
Combined with urbanization and characteristic of new cities, this paper focused on geological environment and engineering problems. And several serious problems were discussed such as geo-hazards in the construction of new cities, groundwater & water environment, solid waste & polluted water/soil, and environmental engineering problems of rock & soil induced by the underground construction. Based on these discussions, some important opinions were believed that human beings should be concordance with earth and be friendly to nature, which should be mastered and monitored by the government. Also, the combination of various professions, innovation, and the application of intelligent controlling & computer technology were important to ensure this concordance. Combined with urbanization and characteristic of new cities, this paper focused on geological environment and engineering problems. And several serious problems were discussed such as geo-hazards in the construction of new cities, groundwater & water environment, solid waste & polluted water/soil, and environmental engineering problems of rock & soil induced by the underground construction. Based on these discussions, some important opinions were believed that human beings should be concordance with earth and be friendly to nature, which should be mastered and monitored by the government. Also, the combination of various professions, innovation, and the application of intelligent controlling & computer technology were important to ensure this concordance.
The urban development and infrastructure of Hong Kong are basically built on hillside slopes of 20 to 50 degrees. Landslide hazard is therefore the severest natural hazard phenomenon in Hong Kong. Since 1950s, in particular, since 1975, engineers and researchers in Hong Kong have done tremendous work and investigations in landslide hazard control and mitigation. They have made many significant achievements. Over the many years, they have established a comprehensive methodology on urban landslide hazard management and mitigation. This methodology has been improved and refined during ongoing engineering practice. The efforts have enabled Hong Kong slope safety to become the highest standard in the world. The landslide hazard management and prevention have contributed significantly to the development and prosperities of Hong Kong. Such experience and methodology should benefit to the relevant work in the Mainland China and other cities in the world. The urban development and infrastructure of Hong Kong are basically built on hillside slopes of 20 to 50 degrees. Landslide hazard is therefore the severest natural hazard phenomenon in Hong Kong. Since 1950s, in particular, since 1975, engineers and researchers in Hong Kong have done tremendous work and investigations in landslide hazard control and mitigation. They have made many significant achievements. Over the many years, they have established a comprehensive methodology on urban landslide hazard management and mitigation. This methodology has been improved and refined during ongoing engineering practice. The efforts have enabled Hong Kong slope safety to become the highest standard in the world. The landslide hazard management and prevention have contributed significantly to the development and prosperities of Hong Kong. Such experience and methodology should benefit to the relevant work in the Mainland China and other cities in the world.
Thragh the analysis on the geotechnical data of the strata penetrated in the general engineering projects of Guangzhou city, foundation rock-soil may be divided into 12 main strata and 46 substrata, status and scope of all the substrata and division of hypo-substrata are introduced. Based on the division of strata, large regional ribbon geological profiles are anatomized, having incorporated past years the city engineering investigates data and other geological research results, engineering rock-soil environment is zoned into four Ⅰ grade zones and eleven Ⅱ zones. Through rock-soil mass characteristic study on each engineering geotechnical environment zone, evaluations on suitability of each zone's engineering construction above are drawn. The paper is the first time to synthetically research on wholly division of rock-soil mass strata, anatomization of large regional geological profiles and zoning of the engineering geotechnical environment Guangzhou vity. which needs to be solved before digital city commence to construct. Many digital engineering geology system in building should be fully paid attention so as to guarantee validity of the future finished system. Thragh the analysis on the geotechnical data of the strata penetrated in the general engineering projects of Guangzhou city, foundation rock-soil may be divided into 12 main strata and 46 substrata, status and scope of all the substrata and division of hypo-substrata are introduced. Based on the division of strata, large regional ribbon geological profiles are anatomized, having incorporated past years the city engineering investigates data and other geological research results, engineering rock-soil environment is zoned into four Ⅰ grade zones and eleven Ⅱ zones. Through rock-soil mass characteristic study on each engineering geotechnical environment zone, evaluations on suitability of each zone's engineering construction above are drawn. The paper is the first time to synthetically research on wholly division of rock-soil mass strata, anatomization of large regional geological profiles and zoning of the engineering geotechnical environment Guangzhou vity. which needs to be solved before digital city commence to construct. Many digital engineering geology system in building should be fully paid attention so as to guarantee validity of the future finished system.
Urban geological problems have principally ground subsidence,ground cleft,mud-rock flow,landslide,avalanche and mollisoil. That formative reason otherwise than immediate natural factor,people activity of production & livelihood foment and aggravate development of urban geological question. According to existing state of the urban geological question in Pearl River Delta,it have expounded preventive countermeasures. Urban geological problems have principally ground subsidence,ground cleft,mud-rock flow,landslide,avalanche and mollisoil. That formative reason otherwise than immediate natural factor,people activity of production & livelihood foment and aggravate development of urban geological question. According to existing state of the urban geological question in Pearl River Delta,it have expounded preventive countermeasures.
This paper had studied on the deposit environment and engineering characteristics of soft soil in Guangzhou area, and drew the conclusion that the soft soil of this region can be divided into three types: Holocene marine soft soil, Holocene mountain depression soft soil, Upper Pleistocene soft soil. Further properties of the soft soil had been revealed through the statistics by comparing their physical mechanical characteristics, and practical reinforce treatments to these soft soil foundations had been discussed in this paper also. This paper had studied on the deposit environment and engineering characteristics of soft soil in Guangzhou area, and drew the conclusion that the soft soil of this region can be divided into three types: Holocene marine soft soil, Holocene mountain depression soft soil, Upper Pleistocene soft soil. Further properties of the soft soil had been revealed through the statistics by comparing their physical mechanical characteristics, and practical reinforce treatments to these soft soil foundations had been discussed in this paper also.
The economy and urbanization of Shenzhen are progressing rapidly; geological environmental problems are aggravated gradually. The main geological environmental problems include slope disasters, siltation of river courses and mouths, contamination of water and soils, tectonic instability and hidden karst collapses. The problems above mentioned will restrict Shenzhen socio-economical development; we must strive for the urbanization sustainable development between the exploitation and protection. The key to prevention the environmental geological problem is that the interaction between the urbanization and geological environment will be known and paid attention to. The economy and urbanization of Shenzhen are progressing rapidly; geological environmental problems are aggravated gradually. The main geological environmental problems include slope disasters, siltation of river courses and mouths, contamination of water and soils, tectonic instability and hidden karst collapses. The problems above mentioned will restrict Shenzhen socio-economical development; we must strive for the urbanization sustainable development between the exploitation and protection. The key to prevention the environmental geological problem is that the interaction between the urbanization and geological environment will be known and paid attention to.
Upper Chalk Karst is exist in Huanghuagang area of west Guangzhou, the probability of water-eroded cave existing in one drill is 4 to 40 percent, the factors main affecting developing degree of the water-eroded cave include the distributing of limestone, the acting of conformation, the denudation of stratum and the dynamical action of ground water. the dimensions of it is smaller, the layers is less, nothing fill in 80 percent of it, existing the whole airslake soft plasticity stone strap above the water-eroded cave, no accompany by the karren and solution groove, all of these are the characters of the Upper Chalk Karst. Considering the distribution of the Upper Chalk Karst is very misproportion, therefore, the feasibility of engineering construction and the selection of base foundation are specially discussed in this paper, the result is hoped to have some reference to the engineering construction in this area. Upper Chalk Karst is exist in Huanghuagang area of west Guangzhou, the probability of water-eroded cave existing in one drill is 4 to 40 percent, the factors main affecting developing degree of the water-eroded cave include the distributing of limestone, the acting of conformation, the denudation of stratum and the dynamical action of ground water. the dimensions of it is smaller, the layers is less, nothing fill in 80 percent of it, existing the whole airslake soft plasticity stone strap above the water-eroded cave, no accompany by the karren and solution groove, all of these are the characters of the Upper Chalk Karst. Considering the distribution of the Upper Chalk Karst is very misproportion, therefore, the feasibility of engineering construction and the selection of base foundation are specially discussed in this paper, the result is hoped to have some reference to the engineering construction in this area.
Dongguan fault basin located in the east of Guangzhou, the bedrock belong to Tertiary system fragmentary rocks, it's alluvial and pluvial sediment. The rock and its weathering grade are different from here to there within basin, because of the different rock-combinations. So the development of soft-interlayer is all-pervading. In a word the rock and soil conditions are extremely complicated and bring adverse affection to engineering construction. This paper summary the characteristics of Tertiary system, according to geotechnical investigation during the past years in the basin. Our work can provide important reference for the engineering constructions in those areas. Dongguan fault basin located in the east of Guangzhou, the bedrock belong to Tertiary system fragmentary rocks, it's alluvial and pluvial sediment. The rock and its weathering grade are different from here to there within basin, because of the different rock-combinations. So the development of soft-interlayer is all-pervading. In a word the rock and soil conditions are extremely complicated and bring adverse affection to engineering construction. This paper summary the characteristics of Tertiary system, according to geotechnical investigation during the past years in the basin. Our work can provide important reference for the engineering constructions in those areas.
The concentration of the radon in soil in the main distributing area of granife of Nansha is investigated(500m?250m grid),mang radon unusual district is discovered,and the distributive law of the radon is discussed. The range of concentration of the radon is 0.62~238.61kBq穖-3,the background value is 7.957kBq穖-3.The maximam is 30 time more than the background in the investigating etc. The concentration of the radon in soil in the main distributing area of granife of Nansha is investigated(500m?250m grid),mang radon unusual district is discovered,and the distributive law of the radon is discussed. The range of concentration of the radon is 0.62~238.61kBq穖-3,the background value is 7.957kBq穖-3.The maximam is 30 time more than the background in the investigating etc.
Based on the description of geological conditions of the investigation zone, the geological disasters concerned with the immersed tunnel are studied. The dangerous level of the disasters is zoned, and methods and suggestions of prevention and treatment to these disasters are provided. Based on the description of geological conditions of the investigation zone, the geological disasters concerned with the immersed tunnel are studied. The dangerous level of the disasters is zoned, and methods and suggestions of prevention and treatment to these disasters are provided.
Economy of Guangzhou is developing rapidly, the contradictions among population, resource and environment are outstanding and the geological environment worsens day by day, the slope hazards frequently take place and seriously hinder the sustainable development of the city. Active faults are their structure foundation .The strong weathering surface provides them with material conditions. Rich precipitation and run-off are their power source. Torrential rain and flood are their important triggering factors. Human activity has resulted in the increased incidence and severity of slope hazards, such as collapse, landslide and debris flow. Man upsets the ecological balance and becomes important disaster causative factor. Slope ha zards in Guangzhou are more and more serious in the past ten years. There are two peak periods in 1996~1998 and 2000~2002. Regional distribution centers on the old town and basin mainly, spreading to surrounding hills. Economy of Guangzhou is developing rapidly, the contradictions among population, resource and environment are outstanding and the geological environment worsens day by day, the slope hazards frequently take place and seriously hinder the sustainable development of the city. Active faults are their structure foundation .The strong weathering surface provides them with material conditions. Rich precipitation and run-off are their power source. Torrential rain and flood are their important triggering factors. Human activity has resulted in the increased incidence and severity of slope hazards, such as collapse, landslide and debris flow. Man upsets the ecological balance and becomes important disaster causative factor. Slope ha zards in Guangzhou are more and more serious in the past ten years. There are two peak periods in 1996~1998 and 2000~2002. Regional distribution centers on the old town and basin mainly, spreading to surrounding hills.
Most of reservoirs on chief rivers in Guangdong are in river channel type,and environmental engineering geological problems hold the balance for these types of reservoirs .As the evaluation methods in code or handbook are not Suitable for these problems, the evaluation methods need to be modified urgently.With the strengthening of human activity,more new geological problems on water conservancy environment are being exposed,and with the increasing of human's environmental consciousness,more and more geological problems on water conservancy environment will be discovered. Being reformed as corporations, engineering geological units in water conservancy will be restricted to go on environmental geology study,so cooperation needs to be discussed. Most of reservoirs on chief rivers in Guangdong are in river channel type,and environmental engineering geological problems hold the balance for these types of reservoirs .As the evaluation methods in code or handbook are not Suitable for these problems, the evaluation methods need to be modified urgently.With the strengthening of human activity,more new geological problems on water conservancy environment are being exposed,and with the increasing of human's environmental consciousness,more and more geological problems on water conservancy environment will be discovered. Being reformed as corporations, engineering geological units in water conservancy will be restricted to go on environmental geology study,so cooperation needs to be discussed.
Geological disasters in city become an important aspect of research on disasters. It is essential to study them in Guangzhou city because they greatly affect development of the city. These disasters restrict land use、land development and deteriorate ecological environment、engineering geological condition in Guangzhou, In connection with characteristics of geological disasters in Guangzhou, some principles to prevent the disasters are presented. Geological disasters in city become an important aspect of research on disasters. It is essential to study them in Guangzhou city because they greatly affect development of the city. These disasters restrict land use、land development and deteriorate ecological environment、engineering geological condition in Guangzhou, In connection with characteristics of geological disasters in Guangzhou, some principles to prevent the disasters are presented.
An important index in the designing of rock and soil engineering is shear strength which can be obtained though triaxial compression tests. In this paper, The experiment of the ZHUJIANG pearl Rever's soft soil discussing experiment main impact factor and experiment process in should notice of some problems. An important index in the designing of rock and soil engineering is shear strength which can be obtained though triaxial compression tests. In this paper, The experiment of the ZHUJIANG pearl Rever's soft soil discussing experiment main impact factor and experiment process in should notice of some problems.
In order to avoid the geologic disaster emerging from freezing construction and better apply the freezing method to undergroud construction in Shanghai, the thesis takes on the relational studies for the first time. Through the consolidated-undrained triaxial shear tests on melted and common dark green silty clay of the 6th storey in the passway in Shanghai Fuxing East Road Tunnel by using the instrument SJ-1A, the thesis studies the relationship among axial stress, axial train and pore water pressure. A new constitutive model of the melted dark green silty clay is established based on the disturbed state concept (DSC) theory, which is verified by the test results. The research has shown that the proposed DSC constitutive model can describe the mechanical of the stratum preferably. In order to avoid the geologic disaster emerging from freezing construction and better apply the freezing method to undergroud construction in Shanghai, the thesis takes on the relational studies for the first time. Through the consolidated-undrained triaxial shear tests on melted and common dark green silty clay of the 6th storey in the passway in Shanghai Fuxing East Road Tunnel by using the instrument SJ-1A, the thesis studies the relationship among axial stress, axial train and pore water pressure. A new constitutive model of the melted dark green silty clay is established based on the disturbed state concept (DSC) theory, which is verified by the test results. The research has shown that the proposed DSC constitutive model can describe the mechanical of the stratum preferably.
The red clay and secondary red clay distributes widely in Kunming city which is in the mid-northern of Yunnan province, with the characteristics of large porosity ratio, low density, high content of clay particle, high plastic limit and liquid limit and larger plasticity index. Moreover, due to its apparent swell-shrink characteristics, the fissures are often formed on the ground surface so that the entirety of the soil body has been broken, as well as the strength and impermeability of the soil body have been degraded, which result in bad influences to the engineering. Therefore, in this paper, based on abundant data of the physical and mechanical experimentations, the distributed chart of the red clay in Kunming city has been drawn by Mapgis software, with the discussion of its distributed characteristic, physical and mechanical properties and swell-shrink characteristics, and then the problems of the fissures and cave in the red clay have been studied. The red clay and secondary red clay distributes widely in Kunming city which is in the mid-northern of Yunnan province, with the characteristics of large porosity ratio, low density, high content of clay particle, high plastic limit and liquid limit and larger plasticity index. Moreover, due to its apparent swell-shrink characteristics, the fissures are often formed on the ground surface so that the entirety of the soil body has been broken, as well as the strength and impermeability of the soil body have been degraded, which result in bad influences to the engineering. Therefore, in this paper, based on abundant data of the physical and mechanical experimentations, the distributed chart of the red clay in Kunming city has been drawn by Mapgis software, with the discussion of its distributed characteristic, physical and mechanical properties and swell-shrink characteristics, and then the problems of the fissures and cave in the red clay have been studied.
In this study, the depositional chemistry of Lianyungang marine clay is investigated by the laboratory tests, and the correlations of depositional chemistry and geotechnical properties are discussed. The results indicate that Lianyungang marine clay is NaCl saliferous clay deposited in alkalescent oxidation environment and the geotechnical properties are variety with depth owing to the influence of depositional chemistry. The OCR, sensitivity, and K0 were positive correlative with the logarithmic of Fe3+ concentration. In this study, the depositional chemistry of Lianyungang marine clay is investigated by the laboratory tests, and the correlations of depositional chemistry and geotechnical properties are discussed. The results indicate that Lianyungang marine clay is NaCl saliferous clay deposited in alkalescent oxidation environment and the geotechnical properties are variety with depth owing to the influence of depositional chemistry. The OCR, sensitivity, and K0 were positive correlative with the logarithmic of Fe3+ concentration.
Geological environment quality assessment system and model are established with 13 first level assessment factors such as topographic grade and second level assessment factors i.e. nature geological characteristic. The evaluation area is divided into three parts: good quality geological environment area, ordinary quality geological environment area and bad quality geological environment area. Based on this, the geological environment quality is assessed with the method of double-fuzzy comprehensive assessment. And the result is: good quality of geological environment area 26.7%, ordinary quality of geological environment area is 52.4%, and bad area 10.9%. Therefore the geological environment quality of YunCheng is not bad, which provides basis for proper countermeasure of protecting environment and sustainable development. Geological environment quality assessment system and model are established with 13 first level assessment factors such as topographic grade and second level assessment factors i.e. nature geological characteristic. The evaluation area is divided into three parts: good quality geological environment area, ordinary quality geological environment area and bad quality geological environment area. Based on this, the geological environment quality is assessed with the method of double-fuzzy comprehensive assessment. And the result is: good quality of geological environment area 26.7%, ordinary quality of geological environment area is 52.4%, and bad area 10.9%. Therefore the geological environment quality of YunCheng is not bad, which provides basis for proper countermeasure of protecting environment and sustainable development.
According to the date of exploration and test in west anchoring tunnel at Balinghe River suspension bridge, the properties of weak intercalation in carbonate rocks are discussed in this paper. The research have proved that the genesis of this kind of clay and intercalation is a solution- replacement products in carbonate rocks. The physical and mechanical testing shows that the grain size analysis of intercalation is belong to the size of red clay, the shear strength of intercalation is similar with the strength of recent red clay and is also similar with other kinds of intercalation. According to the date of exploration and test in west anchoring tunnel at Balinghe River suspension bridge, the properties of weak intercalation in carbonate rocks are discussed in this paper. The research have proved that the genesis of this kind of clay and intercalation is a solution- replacement products in carbonate rocks. The physical and mechanical testing shows that the grain size analysis of intercalation is belong to the size of red clay, the shear strength of intercalation is similar with the strength of recent red clay and is also similar with other kinds of intercalation.
Typical loess slope is studied in this paper. Firstly, the characteristic of loess slope is introduced; the environmental geological conditions and mechanism for the formation of the slope are given. Then the paper discusses influence factors for slope failure, calculating methods for slope stability evaluating, and reinforcement measures in loess area. The study result is instructive to stability evaluating large-scale slope in loess area. Typical loess slope is studied in this paper. Firstly, the characteristic of loess slope is introduced; the environmental geological conditions and mechanism for the formation of the slope are given. Then the paper discusses influence factors for slope failure, calculating methods for slope stability evaluating, and reinforcement measures in loess area. The study result is instructive to stability evaluating large-scale slope in loess area.
Rock weathering, discontinues property and orientations of residual tectonic stress field impacting to rock mass stabilities were analyzed based on engineering practices. Rock weathering, discontinues property and orientations of residual tectonic stress field impacting to rock mass stabilities were analyzed based on engineering practices.
The method of fuzzy synthesize estimate was applied to optimizing the Protective Scheme of Highway Loess-High-Slope basing on the study works for protective technology of highway loess-high-slope. The synthesize slope ratio、Texture-sequence model、the height of slope、slope shape、rainfall and constructive conditions were considered as the most important aspects which influence the election of Scheme, and mathematical expressions of estimating factors 、the first step fuzzy evaluation model 、the weight coefficients of these six judgment indexes and the optimizing matrix were ascertained. Finally, the engineering example is analyzed by this method and the results show that the method is reasonable. The method of fuzzy synthesize estimate was applied to optimizing the Protective Scheme of Highway Loess-High-Slope basing on the study works for protective technology of highway loess-high-slope. The synthesize slope ratio、Texture-sequence model、the height of slope、slope shape、rainfall and constructive conditions were considered as the most important aspects which influence the election of Scheme, and mathematical expressions of estimating factors 、the first step fuzzy evaluation model 、the weight coefficients of these six judgment indexes and the optimizing matrix were ascertained. Finally, the engineering example is analyzed by this method and the results show that the method is reasonable.
2006, 14(S1): 118-125.
Abstract(2321)
527KB(699)
Soft interlayer in rock mass is the most important boundary condition to stability of rock mass. So it is instructive to obtain an accurate and reasonable mechanical parameter of these layers, especially in selecting a good dam base and evaluating the stability of the dam base. For some deep-seated soft interlayer, it is difficult to obtain its mechanical parameter by testing of large-size samples, whereas the shear strength of this layer can be obtained by small-size direct shear of small samples. Therefore, we can calculate the parameters for soft interlayer according to the relationship of experimental value between large and small direct shears. Soft interlayer in rock mass is the most important boundary condition to stability of rock mass. So it is instructive to obtain an accurate and reasonable mechanical parameter of these layers, especially in selecting a good dam base and evaluating the stability of the dam base. For some deep-seated soft interlayer, it is difficult to obtain its mechanical parameter by testing of large-size samples, whereas the shear strength of this layer can be obtained by small-size direct shear of small samples. Therefore, we can calculate the parameters for soft interlayer according to the relationship of experimental value between large and small direct shears.
As to soil containing salt, salt will be transferred with water in freezing soils and assembled and crystallized continuously. Consequently the swelling of the soil volume leads to the phenomenon of salt heavy. It has practical significance for solving salt-heaving and frost-heaving damage problem in engineering to deepen the understanding of salt heavy mechanism. In this paper a general overview about new research results at this aspect at home and abroad was presented. And then the study of salt transfer and salt heavy mechanism and present salt heavy models were summarized. For further researching the field of salt transfer it is urgent to continually strengthen the salt transfer and the numerical value simulation study of salt heavy mechanism to expect perfecting the general evaluation of salt heavy prediction models so as to have a better service for engineering construction. As to soil containing salt, salt will be transferred with water in freezing soils and assembled and crystallized continuously. Consequently the swelling of the soil volume leads to the phenomenon of salt heavy. It has practical significance for solving salt-heaving and frost-heaving damage problem in engineering to deepen the understanding of salt heavy mechanism. In this paper a general overview about new research results at this aspect at home and abroad was presented. And then the study of salt transfer and salt heavy mechanism and present salt heavy models were summarized. For further researching the field of salt transfer it is urgent to continually strengthen the salt transfer and the numerical value simulation study of salt heavy mechanism to expect perfecting the general evaluation of salt heavy prediction models so as to have a better service for engineering construction.
The tamping extended pile is wildly used in silt and fine sand area, and obvious experiences has been gained in practice. But this technique is seldom used in middle, coarse and gravel sand stratum, and not mentioned in rules. So in the procedure of design and construction of the specific engineering, engineering geological analogism is used to estimate roughly. According to the comparison and statistic analysis of the tamping extended pile data in the middle, coarse and gravel sand stratum, significant conclusion has been obtained in this paper. The tamping extended pile is wildly used in silt and fine sand area, and obvious experiences has been gained in practice. But this technique is seldom used in middle, coarse and gravel sand stratum, and not mentioned in rules. So in the procedure of design and construction of the specific engineering, engineering geological analogism is used to estimate roughly. According to the comparison and statistic analysis of the tamping extended pile data in the middle, coarse and gravel sand stratum, significant conclusion has been obtained in this paper.
Based on the analysis of geotechnical quality, calcutive mode, underwater, load and some other factors which can strongly influence the stabilization of landslides, this article sets utmost equations on assessing through the analysis of geotechnical parameter, underwater, effective gravity and other sensitive factors, and their distribution. By combining with the theory of reliability and the approach of First-order Second-moment, after the nonlinear utmost equation being linearized by using Thaler series,and combining with reliability method, this article works out a reliable index of the stabilization of landslides, that is β. At last, this theory is proved accurate by contrastive analysis on the stabilization of the landslide of Kangjiazui in Kaixian. Meanwhile, the accuracy to evaluating the stabilization of landslides is improved. Based on the analysis of geotechnical quality, calcutive mode, underwater, load and some other factors which can strongly influence the stabilization of landslides, this article sets utmost equations on assessing through the analysis of geotechnical parameter, underwater, effective gravity and other sensitive factors, and their distribution. By combining with the theory of reliability and the approach of First-order Second-moment, after the nonlinear utmost equation being linearized by using Thaler series,and combining with reliability method, this article works out a reliable index of the stabilization of landslides, that is β. At last, this theory is proved accurate by contrastive analysis on the stabilization of the landslide of Kangjiazui in Kaixian. Meanwhile, the accuracy to evaluating the stabilization of landslides is improved.
In northwest of Guangzhou, Karst is extensive growth in four sets of geologic stratas of the earily Paleozoic Erathem,such as P1w、P1q、C2+3ht and C1ds. The type of Karst,the scale of Karst and the form of Karst in lock is primarily with the character of rock, lock thick, geologic structure position and groundwater movable etc. The distribute of karst is difference because of the different of geologic strata.Therefore, in this paper,the authors proceeded the evaluation to the feat of engineering developments and the choice of foundation type, and hope that the suggestion could be propitious to the engineering developments and geotechnical investigating. In northwest of Guangzhou, Karst is extensive growth in four sets of geologic stratas of the earily Paleozoic Erathem,such as P1w、P1q、C2+3ht and C1ds. The type of Karst,the scale of Karst and the form of Karst in lock is primarily with the character of rock, lock thick, geologic structure position and groundwater movable etc. The distribute of karst is difference because of the different of geologic strata.Therefore, in this paper,the authors proceeded the evaluation to the feat of engineering developments and the choice of foundation type, and hope that the suggestion could be propitious to the engineering developments and geotechnical investigating.
Combined with an engineering case where lime-soil compaction pile is used to treat subsidence loess, the changes in mechanical property of loess around the pile are analyzed, including the strength property and subsidence of the composite foundation after the treatment. The results show that the application of lime-soil pile in treatment of subsidence loess can improve the engineering properties of the soil between piles effectively, also eliminate subsidence of loess and enhance the bearing capacity of composite foundation. Combined with an engineering case where lime-soil compaction pile is used to treat subsidence loess, the changes in mechanical property of loess around the pile are analyzed, including the strength property and subsidence of the composite foundation after the treatment. The results show that the application of lime-soil pile in treatment of subsidence loess can improve the engineering properties of the soil between piles effectively, also eliminate subsidence of loess and enhance the bearing capacity of composite foundation.
By analyzing influential factors of loess' collapsibility, the thesis gives preliminary research of loess' mechanism of collapsibility, and gives membership functions about influencing grade of loess' collapsibility, establishing the method of two-grade fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. The result of evaluating loess' collapsibility by the method compared with survey. The method proved to be feasibility and high calculate precision. By analyzing influential factors of loess' collapsibility, the thesis gives preliminary research of loess' mechanism of collapsibility, and gives membership functions about influencing grade of loess' collapsibility, establishing the method of two-grade fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. The result of evaluating loess' collapsibility by the method compared with survey. The method proved to be feasibility and high calculate precision.
By a series of laboratory tests, the effect of the grain size distribution of silt soil on the mechanical property of 2:8 lime-soils is studied. The silt soil from construction site is divided into three kinds of groups with different grain size composition, coarse, medium and fine grain size group, and combined with lime in different ratios to form 2:8 lime-soils with different grain size distribution. Soil mechanical tests show that the strength of lime-soils is become higher with the increase of soil grain size, and the highest strength comes in the lime-soil with combination of coarse and medium grain size soils which may reach 1162kPa. Comparison between micro-structures of clean soil and lime-soils observed with electron microscope reveals the reason of the enhancement in mechanical strength of lime-soil. By a series of laboratory tests, the effect of the grain size distribution of silt soil on the mechanical property of 2:8 lime-soils is studied. The silt soil from construction site is divided into three kinds of groups with different grain size composition, coarse, medium and fine grain size group, and combined with lime in different ratios to form 2:8 lime-soils with different grain size distribution. Soil mechanical tests show that the strength of lime-soils is become higher with the increase of soil grain size, and the highest strength comes in the lime-soil with combination of coarse and medium grain size soils which may reach 1162kPa. Comparison between micro-structures of clean soil and lime-soils observed with electron microscope reveals the reason of the enhancement in mechanical strength of lime-soil.
The theory of reliability analysis was introduced in the paper. The reliability of one manual high slope whole stability in Guanzhou was analyzed. The result was obtained that the studied slope was low danger and stability, but the reliability index wasn't achieve the safe class of engineering and it was necessary to reinforce the slope by some manners. The theory of reliability analysis was introduced in the paper. The reliability of one manual high slope whole stability in Guanzhou was analyzed. The result was obtained that the studied slope was low danger and stability, but the reliability index wasn't achieve the safe class of engineering and it was necessary to reinforce the slope by some manners.
During the development process of foundation and geotechnical engineering, lack of various theories causes many danger and hidden troubles. This paper aims to classify various methods of foundation theories, where narrowing of composite foundation and pile foundation is theory characteristic of this paper. Also, this paper focuses on the method of mixing pile which is considered as a kind of similar composite foundation. During the development process of foundation and geotechnical engineering, lack of various theories causes many danger and hidden troubles. This paper aims to classify various methods of foundation theories, where narrowing of composite foundation and pile foundation is theory characteristic of this paper. Also, this paper focuses on the method of mixing pile which is considered as a kind of similar composite foundation.
The geomorphy character of Qian'an mud forest is very special. After ages of erosion, loessial soil changed into group of pillars in dry environment. Because it looks like hoodoo, which is a kind of karst topography, it is called "mud forest". There are several kinds of explains for its formation. The paper indicates that the prime reasons are geomorphy, geology tectonism, groundwater and wind erosion. Through the research we concladed that besides above geological dynamic actions, soils' grain size and physicochemical character are dominant factors in mud forest forming. The geomorphy character of Qian'an mud forest is very special. After ages of erosion, loessial soil changed into group of pillars in dry environment. Because it looks like hoodoo, which is a kind of karst topography, it is called "mud forest". There are several kinds of explains for its formation. The paper indicates that the prime reasons are geomorphy, geology tectonism, groundwater and wind erosion. Through the research we concladed that besides above geological dynamic actions, soils' grain size and physicochemical character are dominant factors in mud forest forming.
Based on the experiments and some examples of actual engineering, the paper detail the physical, chemical and engineering characteristic of eolian sand. In addition, the paper analyzes the road usage performance that eolian sand is a kind of good road construction material in roadbed if we can design reasonably and adopt a suitable constructional technology. A lot of problems in the region need to be sesoheel in appling of eoliansand into rood construction where there is saline soil and no sand or stone. Based on the experiments and some examples of actual engineering, the paper detail the physical, chemical and engineering characteristic of eolian sand. In addition, the paper analyzes the road usage performance that eolian sand is a kind of good road construction material in roadbed if we can design reasonably and adopt a suitable constructional technology. A lot of problems in the region need to be sesoheel in appling of eoliansand into rood construction where there is saline soil and no sand or stone.
In this paper, according to the data of seven hundreds bore hole and well drilling the engineering geological properties of silt is summarized, and the two dimensional distributed regularities, the statistics of thickness and depth are introduce. According to the earthquake resistant design code of foundation ground (GB50011), the results of standard penetration test has been used in this paper to distinguish the silt liquefaction. In accordance with liquefaction distinguish outcome, the area has been divided into four regions,such as: non liquefaction zone,slightly liquefaction zone,moderate liquefaction zone,severity liquefaction zone)by mapgis software. In this paper, according to the data of seven hundreds bore hole and well drilling the engineering geological properties of silt is summarized, and the two dimensional distributed regularities, the statistics of thickness and depth are introduce. According to the earthquake resistant design code of foundation ground (GB50011), the results of standard penetration test has been used in this paper to distinguish the silt liquefaction. In accordance with liquefaction distinguish outcome, the area has been divided into four regions,such as: non liquefaction zone,slightly liquefaction zone,moderate liquefaction zone,severity liquefaction zone)by mapgis software.
The mixture of cement and butter was used as the sealing material in the impermeability test of concrete. The mentioned material is effective and guarantees that the water pressure is applied to the specimens steadily according to the regulations. This sealing material is easy to operate, requires low labor intensity and has no pollution. The mixture of cement and butter was used as the sealing material in the impermeability test of concrete. The mentioned material is effective and guarantees that the water pressure is applied to the specimens steadily according to the regulations. This sealing material is easy to operate, requires low labor intensity and has no pollution.
The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) denoted the potential strength of subgrade material and was an important index to evaluate its performance in expressway. The intrinsic mechanism therefore correctly applies the CBR experiment value and the understanding bearing ratio test intrinsic mechanism. Analyzes its experimental operation technology to have the vital significance. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) denoted the potential strength of subgrade material and was an important index to evaluate its performance in expressway. The intrinsic mechanism therefore correctly applies the CBR experiment value and the understanding bearing ratio test intrinsic mechanism. Analyzes its experimental operation technology to have the vital significance.
Analysis the geological environment, the characteristics and origin mechanics of geological hazards, assess the stability of slope at she end. Analysis the geological environment, the characteristics and origin mechanics of geological hazards, assess the stability of slope at she end.
Urbanization is the greatest project during the process of our country's modernization, the Nobel economics prize winner J.Stiglitse juxtaposes the urbanization of China and the high technology of United States as two key factors that influence the development of mankind in 21 century. Harmonizing the relation between strong engineering activities of humankind and the geological environment varieties during the urbanization is the responsibility and obligation of our country's engineering geology workers, and is also a opportunity for engineering geology development. We can fully study、draw lessons from new ideas, new results, new data of related academic field of geoscience; develop regional geology research; explore the evolvement of our country's regional geology environment and interaction laws between engineering construction and geological environment, and realize the harmonious of urbanization and geological environment. Urbanization is the greatest project during the process of our country's modernization, the Nobel economics prize winner J.Stiglitse juxtaposes the urbanization of China and the high technology of United States as two key factors that influence the development of mankind in 21 century. Harmonizing the relation between strong engineering activities of humankind and the geological environment varieties during the urbanization is the responsibility and obligation of our country's engineering geology workers, and is also a opportunity for engineering geology development. We can fully study、draw lessons from new ideas, new results, new data of related academic field of geoscience; develop regional geology research; explore the evolvement of our country's regional geology environment and interaction laws between engineering construction and geological environment, and realize the harmonious of urbanization and geological environment.
Evaluation of urban engineering geological environment and construction of urban layout compose a multi-factors and multi-levels process. How to choose and use condition of engineering geological environment, protect and control the possible engineering geological problem, reduce the occurrence of geological hazard is very important in urban layout. It was formed that was the system of the method of the quality of valuation of urban planning engineering geological environment in this paper. Evaluation of urban engineering geological environment and construction of urban layout compose a multi-factors and multi-levels process. How to choose and use condition of engineering geological environment, protect and control the possible engineering geological problem, reduce the occurrence of geological hazard is very important in urban layout. It was formed that was the system of the method of the quality of valuation of urban planning engineering geological environment in this paper.
As the saline soil in the salt lake area of Yuncheng for example, there is analysising collapsibility、expandability、corrosivity of saline soil and its influence to engineering foundation. As the saline soil in the salt lake area of Yuncheng for example, there is analysising collapsibility、expandability、corrosivity of saline soil and its influence to engineering foundation.
According to the investigation on mountain torrents and previous data, the characteristic of mountain torrents is summarized in Yuxi City. Based on the partition of rainfall and topographic & geological conditions, the vulnerability zoning of mountain torrents is divided into 14 zones for different probability of disaster occurrence in this area. This work is instructive to resist and reduce the occurrence of mountain torrents, and is helpful to the city planning. According to the investigation on mountain torrents and previous data, the characteristic of mountain torrents is summarized in Yuxi City. Based on the partition of rainfall and topographic & geological conditions, the vulnerability zoning of mountain torrents is divided into 14 zones for different probability of disaster occurrence in this area. This work is instructive to resist and reduce the occurrence of mountain torrents, and is helpful to the city planning.
As the main disaster of urban disaster, the development of urban geologic disasters decided the form of geologic disaster chain. The paper analyzed the genetic relation between the primary and secondary disasters, putting forward the view point of classification accounding to trigger of geologic disasters. On the basis of summarizing the characteristics of disaster chain, it gave the prevention measures of avoidance, resistance, protection, defense, rescue. As the main disaster of urban disaster, the development of urban geologic disasters decided the form of geologic disaster chain. The paper analyzed the genetic relation between the primary and secondary disasters, putting forward the view point of classification accounding to trigger of geologic disasters. On the basis of summarizing the characteristics of disaster chain, it gave the prevention measures of avoidance, resistance, protection, defense, rescue.
With the rapid development of Fuzhou City in recent years, the exploration level of environment has arisen. The disharmony between economic development and environment protection has brought out series of environmental and geological problems. This article discussed the main environmental and geological problems of Fuzhou City-land subsidence, landslide, sand liquefaction, earthquake-induced settlement of soft soil, slide, rock fall, bank slump, seawater encroachment and so on .At the same time, it puts forward the precaution and countermeasures against concrete problems. In the hope that it will heighten the environment protection consciousness of people .And environment protection can become an important part in the process of social development. With the rapid development of Fuzhou City in recent years, the exploration level of environment has arisen. The disharmony between economic development and environment protection has brought out series of environmental and geological problems. This article discussed the main environmental and geological problems of Fuzhou City-land subsidence, landslide, sand liquefaction, earthquake-induced settlement of soft soil, slide, rock fall, bank slump, seawater encroachment and so on .At the same time, it puts forward the precaution and countermeasures against concrete problems. In the hope that it will heighten the environment protection consciousness of people .And environment protection can become an important part in the process of social development.
Geological environmental quality evaluation of urban construction land-use is the foundation of urban planning and site choice of construction land-use. Chooses nine indexes such as slope, geologic hazards and so on as the evaluation factors, and divides the evaluation factors' class and select the sensitive factors which are slope、especial soil thickness and geologic hazard on this foundation, through analyzing the background of environmental geology, hydrological geology and field geological investigation of Jiujiang. Then divides the units in the evaluation area, and chooses the grey clustering method to evaluate the geological environmental quality, during the evaluation process adopts the sensitive-factors fuzzy clustering model's advantage. Finally, it concludes that the grey cluster evaluation result is better to accord with practical situation,suit to evaluate the geological environmental quality of construction land-use in Jiujiang and can achieve the aim of providing geologic environmental information for Jiujiang's planning and construcion. Geological environmental quality evaluation of urban construction land-use is the foundation of urban planning and site choice of construction land-use. Chooses nine indexes such as slope, geologic hazards and so on as the evaluation factors, and divides the evaluation factors' class and select the sensitive factors which are slope、especial soil thickness and geologic hazard on this foundation, through analyzing the background of environmental geology, hydrological geology and field geological investigation of Jiujiang. Then divides the units in the evaluation area, and chooses the grey clustering method to evaluate the geological environmental quality, during the evaluation process adopts the sensitive-factors fuzzy clustering model's advantage. Finally, it concludes that the grey cluster evaluation result is better to accord with practical situation,suit to evaluate the geological environmental quality of construction land-use in Jiujiang and can achieve the aim of providing geologic environmental information for Jiujiang's planning and construcion.
Regulations of field survey on ground fractures and engineering design in Xi'an City (DBJ61-6-2006) is a technical rule for field investigation and design in ground facture area in Xi'an. According to the regulation, ground fractures are defined accurately, and the distribution of the fractures is summarized in Xi'an City. The regulation also gives the requirements and methods applied in field survey of fractures, and set the minimum distance between different buildings and protected requirement of life engineering. This paper gives a good explanation for the regulation. Regulations of field survey on ground fractures and engineering design in Xi'an City (DBJ61-6-2006) is a technical rule for field investigation and design in ground facture area in Xi'an. According to the regulation, ground fractures are defined accurately, and the distribution of the fractures is summarized in Xi'an City. The regulation also gives the requirements and methods applied in field survey of fractures, and set the minimum distance between different buildings and protected requirement of life engineering. This paper gives a good explanation for the regulation.
According to the hydrological geological conditions of certain open mine and the results of groundwater pumping experiment, a reasonable seepage numerical model was set up with MODFLOW, and the process of the confined water level descending with the time was studied. In addition, a calculation of the example was made, which indicated that the calculated data fit the observation ones well. Furthumore, a forecast study was conducted to provide a theoretical guide to the groundwater descending design in the excavating for the open mines. According to the hydrological geological conditions of certain open mine and the results of groundwater pumping experiment, a reasonable seepage numerical model was set up with MODFLOW, and the process of the confined water level descending with the time was studied. In addition, a calculation of the example was made, which indicated that the calculated data fit the observation ones well. Furthumore, a forecast study was conducted to provide a theoretical guide to the groundwater descending design in the excavating for the open mines.
A strong blowout was found at site of earthquake monitoring in Pingyuan, Guangdong, when the earthquake event of ML 8.9 occurred in Indonesia. Squeezed by Pacific plate and the plate of Indian and Australia, the geological environment is really complicated in Guangdong. Engineering accidents often appear because neo-tectonic faults are attached little importance. Therefore, the study on geological environment should be emphasized to ensure project to be safe. A strong blowout was found at site of earthquake monitoring in Pingyuan, Guangdong, when the earthquake event of ML 8.9 occurred in Indonesia. Squeezed by Pacific plate and the plate of Indian and Australia, the geological environment is really complicated in Guangdong. Engineering accidents often appear because neo-tectonic faults are attached little importance. Therefore, the study on geological environment should be emphasized to ensure project to be safe.
There are lots of lithoid cultural relics with high value of research, art and travel development. However, many relics are in dangerous due to the long-term destroy from the nature or human being, especially acid rain caused by human activities has a serious influence on the relics. In this paper, the fact that acid rain is endangering Leshan Dafou is analyzed firstly, and its mechanism and factors are explored. To protect lithoid cultural relic of red layer, therefore, polluted environment should be improved. There are lots of lithoid cultural relics with high value of research, art and travel development. However, many relics are in dangerous due to the long-term destroy from the nature or human being, especially acid rain caused by human activities has a serious influence on the relics. In this paper, the fact that acid rain is endangering Leshan Dafou is analyzed firstly, and its mechanism and factors are explored. To protect lithoid cultural relic of red layer, therefore, polluted environment should be improved.
Based on the idea of environmental engineering geology, several problems (currently or potentially exist) on environmental engineering geology were analyzed in this paper, from the angle of engineering construction. The author concluded that the idea of "Prevention first, reclamation second" should be applied in city engineering geology management, and city planning should be ruled by the concept of develop scientifically in the reclamation of environmental engineering geology, to meet the need of merging urban development and environment protection. Based on the idea of environmental engineering geology, several problems (currently or potentially exist) on environmental engineering geology were analyzed in this paper, from the angle of engineering construction. The author concluded that the idea of "Prevention first, reclamation second" should be applied in city engineering geology management, and city planning should be ruled by the concept of develop scientifically in the reclamation of environmental engineering geology, to meet the need of merging urban development and environment protection.
Recently, spray-anchor-net is extensively applied in deep exaction of many buildings at Wuhan city as a new support method,At the same time, a lot of the research is about the practical application and the qualitative analysis as a active restraining mechanism, but the less of research is about the structural deformation which is influenced by the groundwater seepage affection, so it has become the decisive problem restraining the next application.In this paper, spray-anchor-net support structure is abstracted scientifically and reasonably,and the mathematical model is established about the couple of the seepage and the stress, the finite element calculation program taking account into the underground water permeability is compiled,the result is indicated by the practical case that the finite element method (FEM)is the valid method analyzing the spray-anchor-net deformation which is affected by seepage, and the deformation can be predicted more accurately, the ameliorative suggestion is given for the design and the informational construction of the deep foundations. Recently, spray-anchor-net is extensively applied in deep exaction of many buildings at Wuhan city as a new support method,At the same time, a lot of the research is about the practical application and the qualitative analysis as a active restraining mechanism, but the less of research is about the structural deformation which is influenced by the groundwater seepage affection, so it has become the decisive problem restraining the next application.In this paper, spray-anchor-net support structure is abstracted scientifically and reasonably,and the mathematical model is established about the couple of the seepage and the stress, the finite element calculation program taking account into the underground water permeability is compiled,the result is indicated by the practical case that the finite element method (FEM)is the valid method analyzing the spray-anchor-net deformation which is affected by seepage, and the deformation can be predicted more accurately, the ameliorative suggestion is given for the design and the informational construction of the deep foundations.
Lattice frame anchor reinforcement is a new structure to prevent slope sliding. Internal force calculated method of lattice frame beam for projects was discussed for controlling soft rock slope. It was proposed that lattice frame beam was analyzed as interaction of cross beam and foundation and it was simplified to two direction limited beams on Winkle elastic foundation. Designed parameters of lattice frame beam were suggested. Lattice frame anchor reinforcement is a new structure to prevent slope sliding. Internal force calculated method of lattice frame beam for projects was discussed for controlling soft rock slope. It was proposed that lattice frame beam was analyzed as interaction of cross beam and foundation and it was simplified to two direction limited beams on Winkle elastic foundation. Designed parameters of lattice frame beam were suggested.
Zhenjiang city is famous for her mountain forest at all time. However, it was influnced in the factors of geology. Specially, the problems of environmental geology appears importance with the progress of the quick speed of city building. It can provide the scientific reference to the development planning of Zhenjiang as studying on the geological features of landlide. Zhenjiang city is famous for her mountain forest at all time. However, it was influnced in the factors of geology. Specially, the problems of environmental geology appears importance with the progress of the quick speed of city building. It can provide the scientific reference to the development planning of Zhenjiang as studying on the geological features of landlide.
In the Karst surveying practice,with actual project situation,We can bring the karst under control on the basis of investigation and reexamination work throngh the evalunation analysis of its stability and division of its risk。By combining survey with control work,ancl further revealing the development of limestone cave and its distribution state,we can achieve the managing aim. In the Karst surveying practice,with actual project situation,We can bring the karst under control on the basis of investigation and reexamination work throngh the evalunation analysis of its stability and division of its risk。By combining survey with control work,ancl further revealing the development of limestone cave and its distribution state,we can achieve the managing aim.
One hydroelectric station is lacking in anti-seepage on downstream of Jinshajiang River. On the basis of investigating on anti-seepage material, we take Dacun landslide deposit as an example, which will be treated as anti-seepage material habitat in geological prospect. According to integrative data on exploration, experiment, physical prospecting, observation, the macro analysis will be carried on, in which the earth borrow's clay content, the gravel and detritus content, the natural water content will be researched. The earth material will be divided into two sections that are I and II in the vertical direction. The result is that the quality of viscous detritus and gravel earth measure up the anti-seepage material and high plastic clay, and its reserves meets the design needs. One hydroelectric station is lacking in anti-seepage on downstream of Jinshajiang River. On the basis of investigating on anti-seepage material, we take Dacun landslide deposit as an example, which will be treated as anti-seepage material habitat in geological prospect. According to integrative data on exploration, experiment, physical prospecting, observation, the macro analysis will be carried on, in which the earth borrow's clay content, the gravel and detritus content, the natural water content will be researched. The earth material will be divided into two sections that are I and II in the vertical direction. The result is that the quality of viscous detritus and gravel earth measure up the anti-seepage material and high plastic clay, and its reserves meets the design needs.
Influencing feature of every kinds of facilities safety is studied on basis of distribution for fault zone and property for mine excavation, and measuring data in Funshun area. Meanwhile, character of ground deformation, influence for fault zone, ground deformation trend for continuing mining and effect for environment damage is detailed analyzed. On basis, measures is probed. Development is well ensured. Influencing feature of every kinds of facilities safety is studied on basis of distribution for fault zone and property for mine excavation, and measuring data in Funshun area. Meanwhile, character of ground deformation, influence for fault zone, ground deformation trend for continuing mining and effect for environment damage is detailed analyzed. On basis, measures is probed. Development is well ensured.
Based on a great deal of field investigation, bore drilling and physical exploration, formation mechanism of Dahuaqiao slope is analyzed and a geo-mechanical mode is proposed to explore the slope deformation. The results indicate that the slope body is originated from collapse deposit which is caused by deferential settlement. The formation of Dahuaqiao slope is divided into two stages: the formation of deposit, and formation of slope body. Now weak slide surface the slope does not go through the whole slope body, and the slope is in good stability condition. Based on a great deal of field investigation, bore drilling and physical exploration, formation mechanism of Dahuaqiao slope is analyzed and a geo-mechanical mode is proposed to explore the slope deformation. The results indicate that the slope body is originated from collapse deposit which is caused by deferential settlement. The formation of Dahuaqiao slope is divided into two stages: the formation of deposit, and formation of slope body. Now weak slide surface the slope does not go through the whole slope body, and the slope is in good stability condition.
The weak intercalated layer is always an primary factor that controls the engineering construction.This paper analyses on the properties, origin cause of formation of the weak interlayer and characteristics of shear stress and strain,from which,the mechannistic parameter is given. The weak intercalated layer is always an primary factor that controls the engineering construction.This paper analyses on the properties, origin cause of formation of the weak interlayer and characteristics of shear stress and strain,from which,the mechannistic parameter is given.
Method of limit equilibrium is generally applied to assess stability and to calculate sliding force of landslide, which is based on a series concepts such as equilibrium, limit equilibrium, stability, factor of stability, factor of safety, sliding force, anti-sliding force, residual sliding force etc. In the paper, the authors discussed the physical significance of the concepts conscientiously. In the process deducing the formula of sliding force, the relations between factor of stability and factor of safety, among sliding force,anti-sliding force and residual sliding force are commented. A case of example is calculated by the way of Excel, which could be easily understand by engineers. Method of limit equilibrium is generally applied to assess stability and to calculate sliding force of landslide, which is based on a series concepts such as equilibrium, limit equilibrium, stability, factor of stability, factor of safety, sliding force, anti-sliding force, residual sliding force etc. In the paper, the authors discussed the physical significance of the concepts conscientiously. In the process deducing the formula of sliding force, the relations between factor of stability and factor of safety, among sliding force,anti-sliding force and residual sliding force are commented. A case of example is calculated by the way of Excel, which could be easily understand by engineers.
The Vectorgraph Method is a method for evaluating the stability of a slope based on the relationship between structural planes, angles of internal friction of the rock or structural planes and the plane of the slope. Besides the structural plane ( blind structural plane), the fracture structural plane caused by lateral stress should be considered in the evaluation with the vectorgraph method. This paper recommended a new simply method to evaluate the slope stability by discussing three different conditions. The Vectorgraph Method is a method for evaluating the stability of a slope based on the relationship between structural planes, angles of internal friction of the rock or structural planes and the plane of the slope. Besides the structural plane ( blind structural plane), the fracture structural plane caused by lateral stress should be considered in the evaluation with the vectorgraph method. This paper recommended a new simply method to evaluate the slope stability by discussing three different conditions.
Based on the investigation and stability evaluation for the city wall on the southeastern of Shanhaiguan Section of the Great Wall, this paper introduced a procedure which is applied to the investigation and stability evaluation of ancient city-wall specially. This work also offers an important referee for reinforcement for the section of the Great wall. Based on the investigation and stability evaluation for the city wall on the southeastern of Shanhaiguan Section of the Great Wall, this paper introduced a procedure which is applied to the investigation and stability evaluation of ancient city-wall specially. This work also offers an important referee for reinforcement for the section of the Great wall.
Lengdu complicated slope, located in the cross zone between Shuoduogang River and Jinshajiang River, the east of the first area of the reservoir of Tiger-leaping-gorge power station, and the large Jinshajiang bridge for Yunnan-Tibet railway, has been regarded as a large landslale. Based on field investigation and comprehensive analysis, the paper concludes that it was a large complicated slope caused by inner and extra geological process. The frontier part of slope is composed of loose deposit, existing local sliding phenomenon, the mid-part appears as broken mass caused by fault movement, the upper part is covered by scattered rock blocks. It is considered that the large slope is stable state in whole at present, However, it is possible that the fronter part of slope will failure after the reservoir inundation. Lengdu complicated slope, located in the cross zone between Shuoduogang River and Jinshajiang River, the east of the first area of the reservoir of Tiger-leaping-gorge power station, and the large Jinshajiang bridge for Yunnan-Tibet railway, has been regarded as a large landslale. Based on field investigation and comprehensive analysis, the paper concludes that it was a large complicated slope caused by inner and extra geological process. The frontier part of slope is composed of loose deposit, existing local sliding phenomenon, the mid-part appears as broken mass caused by fault movement, the upper part is covered by scattered rock blocks. It is considered that the large slope is stable state in whole at present, However, it is possible that the fronter part of slope will failure after the reservoir inundation.
The text main talk about the idea of the northern city beautify and brings the rivers under control.Analyses the circumstances and engineering geology questions about brings the rivers under control,put forward some mesures. The text main talk about the idea of the northern city beautify and brings the rivers under control.Analyses the circumstances and engineering geology questions about brings the rivers under control,put forward some mesures.
The slide settlement had measured from mining sites in Niubo gold dposit Yunnan Province since then years. The paper researches relativity slide settlement and extavated side slope angle, dedues and caleulates side slope angle stabled. And it dstimates guantity of maximumma and sites. So it can direct manufacture on mining sites engineering that mining sites can produce very much safely. The slide settlement had measured from mining sites in Niubo gold dposit Yunnan Province since then years. The paper researches relativity slide settlement and extavated side slope angle, dedues and caleulates side slope angle stabled. And it dstimates guantity of maximumma and sites. So it can direct manufacture on mining sites engineering that mining sites can produce very much safely.
Based on a mass of experiments, a brief analysis is carried out to investigate the engineering properties of polypropylene fiber reinforced raw soil, reinforced lime soil and reinforced cement soil. The strength behavior and mechanism of polypropylene fiber reinforced soil are illustrated. It is found that the polypropylene fiber reinforcement effectively can enhance the strength and stability of soil, and makes the soil brittle failure into ductile one. Therefore, the polypropylene fiber as a better material of reinforced earth has very wide applications in the geotechnical field. Based on a mass of experiments, a brief analysis is carried out to investigate the engineering properties of polypropylene fiber reinforced raw soil, reinforced lime soil and reinforced cement soil. The strength behavior and mechanism of polypropylene fiber reinforced soil are illustrated. It is found that the polypropylene fiber reinforcement effectively can enhance the strength and stability of soil, and makes the soil brittle failure into ductile one. Therefore, the polypropylene fiber as a better material of reinforced earth has very wide applications in the geotechnical field.
The injection reservoir, which is named Wushishui, was determined unsafe because of heavy leakage. It has being played important role of irrigation and flood control. So, it is necessary to improve and strengthen the dam base of this reservoir. Based on the regional engineering geological situations, the methods of consolidation and grouting are taken properly for project design and construction. Different skills for drilling and grouting were chosen to adapt different rocks that have different leakage features. The methods and skills taken make construct efficiently and economically. After the construction, the pressurized-water test, accompanied by observation of swampy land and spring located at back of dam, ware selected to check out effect of consolidation and grouting of dam base. The all results above indicate the leakage decreased remarkably and consolidation objective was realized effectively. The injection reservoir, which is named Wushishui, was determined unsafe because of heavy leakage. It has being played important role of irrigation and flood control. So, it is necessary to improve and strengthen the dam base of this reservoir. Based on the regional engineering geological situations, the methods of consolidation and grouting are taken properly for project design and construction. Different skills for drilling and grouting were chosen to adapt different rocks that have different leakage features. The methods and skills taken make construct efficiently and economically. After the construction, the pressurized-water test, accompanied by observation of swampy land and spring located at back of dam, ware selected to check out effect of consolidation and grouting of dam base. The all results above indicate the leakage decreased remarkably and consolidation objective was realized effectively.
Seventy and more excavated side slope, with the highness more than 10 metrers, have been formed along the arterial roads to the Baoquan Pumped Storage Power Plant. In certain sections, side slopes in medium and high size have been actually formed, and some even reached to a highness of 45 meters. According to the exposed geological instance after the excavation, techniques of PMS protection covering all the excavated side slopes are adopted for supporting purpose of ecological protection. The use of such technique in this construction area is just for the first time, and it can also be used or reference for the environment improvement, especially for city environmental geology. Seventy and more excavated side slope, with the highness more than 10 metrers, have been formed along the arterial roads to the Baoquan Pumped Storage Power Plant. In certain sections, side slopes in medium and high size have been actually formed, and some even reached to a highness of 45 meters. According to the exposed geological instance after the excavation, techniques of PMS protection covering all the excavated side slopes are adopted for supporting purpose of ecological protection. The use of such technique in this construction area is just for the first time, and it can also be used or reference for the environment improvement, especially for city environmental geology.
In this paper, modes and causes of collapse of high slope in Wanzhou disfrict are researched through the analysis engineering geological conditions. New collapse modes of high slopes are derived through comprehensively study of rock mass lithology, the conditions and development processes of collapses, forming and extending of unstable rock mass. Then the slope collapse hazards are detailed in this paper. In this paper, modes and causes of collapse of high slope in Wanzhou disfrict are researched through the analysis engineering geological conditions. New collapse modes of high slopes are derived through comprehensively study of rock mass lithology, the conditions and development processes of collapses, forming and extending of unstable rock mass. Then the slope collapse hazards are detailed in this paper.
A new flow model of fluid in single non-equal fracture width is presented, and the analysis methods of seepage properties in fractured rock mass with multi-set of fractures are discussed. With Jinping Hydropower Station as a case study area, based on the measured field data of the dam site, the seepage model is established and the seepage properties of the rock mass are evaluated. A new flow model of fluid in single non-equal fracture width is presented, and the analysis methods of seepage properties in fractured rock mass with multi-set of fractures are discussed. With Jinping Hydropower Station as a case study area, based on the measured field data of the dam site, the seepage model is established and the seepage properties of the rock mass are evaluated.
This paper analyzed and compared plenty of geotechnical investigation data of the west coast of Shenzhen. According to different appearing of the physical mechanics character and shear strength of the soft soil in different sediment environment, the area was divided into several engineering geologic areas for statistic, and combined former sea bank building and soft foundation treatment engineering experience, some proposal of disposing methods were put forward, to some extent, it has instructional significance for the foundation treatment of the sea reclamation in this district. This paper analyzed and compared plenty of geotechnical investigation data of the west coast of Shenzhen. According to different appearing of the physical mechanics character and shear strength of the soft soil in different sediment environment, the area was divided into several engineering geologic areas for statistic, and combined former sea bank building and soft foundation treatment engineering experience, some proposal of disposing methods were put forward, to some extent, it has instructional significance for the foundation treatment of the sea reclamation in this district.
The vacuum dynamic consolidation method was successfully completed on the saturated dredger mucky, which is situated at BOHAI bay,Based on the ground acceleration test,this paper analyze the dispersion effect under different impact energy. All the test results are referential to other similar projects. The vacuum dynamic consolidation method was successfully completed on the saturated dredger mucky, which is situated at BOHAI bay,Based on the ground acceleration test,this paper analyze the dispersion effect under different impact energy. All the test results are referential to other similar projects.
Dredger-reclamation is a kind of technology which means to make the silt or sand with the sea water into paste by some certain proportion and transport the paste to the assigned regions, then to drain water and solidify the land. An engineering example is introduced,how the dredger-reclamation comes into being and its geological characteristics as load in some port area of Shenzhen reclamation project, and also gives two widely applicable methods applied to the dredger-reclaimed soil. Dredger-reclamation is a kind of technology which means to make the silt or sand with the sea water into paste by some certain proportion and transport the paste to the assigned regions, then to drain water and solidify the land. An engineering example is introduced,how the dredger-reclamation comes into being and its geological characteristics as load in some port area of Shenzhen reclamation project, and also gives two widely applicable methods applied to the dredger-reclaimed soil.
This paper examines the calculating method of negative skin friction producing by rock-socket pile in undereonsolidation sediment sites on sea reclamation and the principles of the neutral point. This paper examines the calculating method of negative skin friction producing by rock-socket pile in undereonsolidation sediment sites on sea reclamation and the principles of the neutral point.
Based on the engineering geological condition of the fill soil at Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport and demands of field-road engineering on soil, this paper puts forward some test projects of dynamic compaction, compares and analysis' the test data of the fill soil in some test regions before and after dynamic compaction, and discuss' the effect of dynamic compaction on the fill soil. Based on the engineering geological condition of the fill soil at Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport and demands of field-road engineering on soil, this paper puts forward some test projects of dynamic compaction, compares and analysis' the test data of the fill soil in some test regions before and after dynamic compaction, and discuss' the effect of dynamic compaction on the fill soil.
It is advantageous to treat saturated soft ground by gravel pile and dynamic compaction. The surface layer soil quality is low, and the lower soil is high, according to SPT, dry density testing, compress modulus testing, load-settlement testing, after gravel pile working. The reasonable working parameter and working technique are defined. The result of stabilization is well acquired in according with checking. It is advantageous to treat saturated soft ground by gravel pile and dynamic compaction. The surface layer soil quality is low, and the lower soil is high, according to SPT, dry density testing, compress modulus testing, load-settlement testing, after gravel pile working. The reasonable working parameter and working technique are defined. The result of stabilization is well acquired in according with checking.
Xiamen haicang road is located in seaside area, where silt distributes widely, and the thickness of silt is changed greatly in differently sites. The deep jetting mixing piles were not penetrate whole silt layer in thick silt places, and become floating piles. Through in-situ experiments, the settlement and internal deformation of pile and silt, the stress ratio between pile and soil were studied. Then treatment result was evaluated by bearing test, spt test and dmt test. Xiamen haicang road is located in seaside area, where silt distributes widely, and the thickness of silt is changed greatly in differently sites. The deep jetting mixing piles were not penetrate whole silt layer in thick silt places, and become floating piles. Through in-situ experiments, the settlement and internal deformation of pile and silt, the stress ratio between pile and soil were studied. Then treatment result was evaluated by bearing test, spt test and dmt test.
With the introduce of hydraulic fill muck subsoil improvement under preload with prefabricated drains for some international container dock,the bade of the analysis on the muck subsoil improvement method is presented,the advantage and practical application are summarized. The paper has more powerful reference value. With the introduce of hydraulic fill muck subsoil improvement under preload with prefabricated drains for some international container dock,the bade of the analysis on the muck subsoil improvement method is presented,the advantage and practical application are summarized. The paper has more powerful reference value.
A relatively high excess pore water pressure(EPWP) arises while driving a pile group in a workshop. The maximum reached 120 kPa. Furthermore, a Lateral displacement of about 1.5m of the piles top is observed after excavation of foundation to avoid the potential problems induced by instability of excavation of foundation and decrease of pile bearing capacities, two kinds of treatment processes as setting prefabricated drains before or after pile driving are adopted. By comparing the EPWP dissipation laws of the foundation which are treated by the two processes, it is found that driving pile should be carried out after setting vertical drains, and a suitable space between the vertical drains is helpful for dissipating EPWP. Moreover, such a treatment can ensure the safety of project, and is timesaving. A relatively high excess pore water pressure(EPWP) arises while driving a pile group in a workshop. The maximum reached 120 kPa. Furthermore, a Lateral displacement of about 1.5m of the piles top is observed after excavation of foundation to avoid the potential problems induced by instability of excavation of foundation and decrease of pile bearing capacities, two kinds of treatment processes as setting prefabricated drains before or after pile driving are adopted. By comparing the EPWP dissipation laws of the foundation which are treated by the two processes, it is found that driving pile should be carried out after setting vertical drains, and a suitable space between the vertical drains is helpful for dissipating EPWP. Moreover, such a treatment can ensure the safety of project, and is timesaving.
The orbit transportation engineering of Beijing to Tianjin city is the first high-speed city-to-city transportation railroad that our country will soon carry out, follow the line through several districts of the regional land subsidence, and bring about important influence on the transportation engineering. The geological environment background, the present condition of the regional land subsidence, its reason and the trend of the development, and its influence on the orbit transportation engineering of Beijing city to Tianjin city are discussed in this paper, and the prevention and cure counter-plans are put forward further. The orbit transportation engineering of Beijing to Tianjin city is the first high-speed city-to-city transportation railroad that our country will soon carry out, follow the line through several districts of the regional land subsidence, and bring about important influence on the transportation engineering. The geological environment background, the present condition of the regional land subsidence, its reason and the trend of the development, and its influence on the orbit transportation engineering of Beijing city to Tianjin city are discussed in this paper, and the prevention and cure counter-plans are put forward further.
Various geological units appear at different section of Shiziyang tunnel in Zhujiang city. So the excavation of tunnel must be done on a complicated geological condition. This paper firstly introduced the engineering geological and hydrological conditions for different sections of the tunnel, and then proposed some suggestions for shield excavation of the tunnel. Various geological units appear at different section of Shiziyang tunnel in Zhujiang city. So the excavation of tunnel must be done on a complicated geological condition. This paper firstly introduced the engineering geological and hydrological conditions for different sections of the tunnel, and then proposed some suggestions for shield excavation of the tunnel.
Because of importance and particularity, it is essential to study the evaluation of seismic safety for underground pipelines between cities. According to the geology material and on-the-spot investigation, seismic activity and seismotectonic environment along the pipeline are comprehensively analyzed and evaluated., and the potential earthquake region is divided. The relative parameters are determined. In the sites along the pipeline, with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, the division map of the peak ground acceleration is given. Meantime, geological disaster induced by the earthquake along the pipeline is evaluated. Thus, the seismic fortification parameters and the important basis for disaster prevent and mitigation are provided. Because of importance and particularity, it is essential to study the evaluation of seismic safety for underground pipelines between cities. According to the geology material and on-the-spot investigation, seismic activity and seismotectonic environment along the pipeline are comprehensively analyzed and evaluated., and the potential earthquake region is divided. The relative parameters are determined. In the sites along the pipeline, with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, the division map of the peak ground acceleration is given. Meantime, geological disaster induced by the earthquake along the pipeline is evaluated. Thus, the seismic fortification parameters and the important basis for disaster prevent and mitigation are provided.
The Liuxi river Bridge of Jiedong Expressway in Guangzhou goes from Guangzhou-Conghua Fault Zone. Based on kinematics, kinetics and the dynamic characteristics for fault appraise, the common discipline of the bridge design on the fault structure has been put forward. Meanwhile a bridge foundation design on the fault structure has been worked out based on the analysis of the foundation design of the Liuxihe Bridge. The Liuxi river Bridge of Jiedong Expressway in Guangzhou goes from Guangzhou-Conghua Fault Zone. Based on kinematics, kinetics and the dynamic characteristics for fault appraise, the common discipline of the bridge design on the fault structure has been put forward. Meanwhile a bridge foundation design on the fault structure has been worked out based on the analysis of the foundation design of the Liuxihe Bridge.
By analyzing the Karst collapse and settlement in the construction of mountainous railway, four basic characteristics are brought forward and listed as follows: human activities, concomitant, development and wide. The analysis also indicates that the influence of Karst collapse and settlement on resources, ecology and society is serious. Besides, rapid change of hydrodynamic field is considered as the main factors which results in Karst collapse and settlement in the construction of mountainous railway. By analyzing the Karst collapse and settlement in the construction of mountainous railway, four basic characteristics are brought forward and listed as follows: human activities, concomitant, development and wide. The analysis also indicates that the influence of Karst collapse and settlement on resources, ecology and society is serious. Besides, rapid change of hydrodynamic field is considered as the main factors which results in Karst collapse and settlement in the construction of mountainous railway.
Active fault are the main geological hazard to build and run the engineering of bridge, and it is a key geological problem to be faced in communication construction. For concrete engineering, the character of fault decides its engineering effect; they decide the engineering handling together. Through the formulation study in whole of fault engineering investigation、engineering effect and engineering handling,Studying the leading edge problem in the study of fault engineering effect.According to engineering practice,it gives the method based on theoretical model for fault engineering effect. Active fault are the main geological hazard to build and run the engineering of bridge, and it is a key geological problem to be faced in communication construction. For concrete engineering, the character of fault decides its engineering effect; they decide the engineering handling together. Through the formulation study in whole of fault engineering investigation、engineering effect and engineering handling,Studying the leading edge problem in the study of fault engineering effect.According to engineering practice,it gives the method based on theoretical model for fault engineering effect.
The Liuxi river bridge of Jiedong expressway in Guangzhou goes from Guangzhou-Conghua fault zone. Based on the analysis of influence of active faults, proposing Guangzhou-Conghua fault zone to the Liuxi river special bridge influence, and has determined the overall research mentality and the research technique. Finally, obtained the preliminary research achievement. The Liuxi river bridge of Jiedong expressway in Guangzhou goes from Guangzhou-Conghua fault zone. Based on the analysis of influence of active faults, proposing Guangzhou-Conghua fault zone to the Liuxi river special bridge influence, and has determined the overall research mentality and the research technique. Finally, obtained the preliminary research achievement.
The station and zone tunnel's corpus structures of No.1 line of Chengdu metro all locate in the sand and pebble soil.Will meet many construction geologies and the environment geology problem in the construction, for example, big diameter, high strength gravel and the anastigmatic body sand will produce the bigger influence to choose the type of shield machine, construction of shield and the groundwater decline.At the same time, the metro engineering construction may produce the influence to the peripheral building and the groundwater path. But at full summary the technique and the experience of similar engineering in the foundations,from choose the reasonable construction method, construction equipments, construction craft, construction organization and engineering measure, can be solve or control above-mentioned geology problems. The station and zone tunnel's corpus structures of No.1 line of Chengdu metro all locate in the sand and pebble soil.Will meet many construction geologies and the environment geology problem in the construction, for example, big diameter, high strength gravel and the anastigmatic body sand will produce the bigger influence to choose the type of shield machine, construction of shield and the groundwater decline.At the same time, the metro engineering construction may produce the influence to the peripheral building and the groundwater path. But at full summary the technique and the experience of similar engineering in the foundations,from choose the reasonable construction method, construction equipments, construction craft, construction organization and engineering measure, can be solve or control above-mentioned geology problems.
China is still at the beginning stages of underground oil storage,and thus it is not deep enough. It is essential for us to study and absorb the advanced experience and technology of the foreign countries. In this field, which has so far gained little attention in China, the geological conditions of the rock mass are the key factors to the successful oil storage. The authors, therefore, compare and analyze the geological conditions of the oil storage bases in some foreign countries, and put forward the geological factors that should be considered in underground oil storage. China is still at the beginning stages of underground oil storage,and thus it is not deep enough. It is essential for us to study and absorb the advanced experience and technology of the foreign countries. In this field, which has so far gained little attention in China, the geological conditions of the rock mass are the key factors to the successful oil storage. The authors, therefore, compare and analyze the geological conditions of the oil storage bases in some foreign countries, and put forward the geological factors that should be considered in underground oil storage.
The cause of tunnel collapse is analyzed in this paper through the collapse geological investigation of Ma'anshan Tunnel, also the outcome of observation of ground deformation and pre-forecast result of geology radar are consulted to further study the cause. The measure and countermeasure to prevent the occurring of collapse accidents are generalized under the same engineering geological condition, which can provide construction direction for other tunnels. The cause of tunnel collapse is analyzed in this paper through the collapse geological investigation of Ma'anshan Tunnel, also the outcome of observation of ground deformation and pre-forecast result of geology radar are consulted to further study the cause. The measure and countermeasure to prevent the occurring of collapse accidents are generalized under the same engineering geological condition, which can provide construction direction for other tunnels.
By analyzing investigation and design data of tunnel anchor of Baling river bridge and Guanling No.1 tunnel, we applied the procedure of geophysical exploration combined with field investigation to obtain accurately the engineering geological conditions of the tunnel, where geophysical exploration included HSP acoustic reflection, high-density electrical survey, and electromagnetic reflection. According to the data from field investigation and geophysical exploration, surrounding rock classification was given, and main engineering geological problems were observed, some suggestions were proposed. So far, this procedure has been used to forecast geological conditions for tunnel excavation. By analyzing investigation and design data of tunnel anchor of Baling river bridge and Guanling No.1 tunnel, we applied the procedure of geophysical exploration combined with field investigation to obtain accurately the engineering geological conditions of the tunnel, where geophysical exploration included HSP acoustic reflection, high-density electrical survey, and electromagnetic reflection. According to the data from field investigation and geophysical exploration, surrounding rock classification was given, and main engineering geological problems were observed, some suggestions were proposed. So far, this procedure has been used to forecast geological conditions for tunnel excavation.
Based on a case of foundation excavation engineering, we introduce the application of soil-nailed retaining wall in high permeable layer. By analyzing the process of excavation and monitoring data, the feasibility and limitation of this approach is summarized. This experience of the case can be an important reference for simile engineering. Based on a case of foundation excavation engineering, we introduce the application of soil-nailed retaining wall in high permeable layer. By analyzing the process of excavation and monitoring data, the feasibility and limitation of this approach is summarized. This experience of the case can be an important reference for simile engineering.
In this paper, general characteristic of soft foundation pit is firstly introduced. The deformation and instability which often occur in soft foundation pit is analyzed and some conclusions are found, i.e., to control the deformation of these pits is the key point. Therefore, the application of composite soil-nail in soft foundation pit is suggested and some specific problems are discussed. Also, some good engineering cases are listed here to prove the effect of this approach. The case applications show that composite soil-nail is effective indeed for soft foundation pits if key steps are well controlled during the process of construction. In this paper, general characteristic of soft foundation pit is firstly introduced. The deformation and instability which often occur in soft foundation pit is analyzed and some conclusions are found, i.e., to control the deformation of these pits is the key point. Therefore, the application of composite soil-nail in soft foundation pit is suggested and some specific problems are discussed. Also, some good engineering cases are listed here to prove the effect of this approach. The case applications show that composite soil-nail is effective indeed for soft foundation pits if key steps are well controlled during the process of construction.
This paper firstly discussed the mechanism of soil squeezing effect, and analyzed the effect of time and space for soil squeezing. Then the opinion of plastic zone overlapping and effect of big pile was proposed, and the general methods to control soil squeezing effect were introduced. It was shown that it is important to apply driving pile on strait field. Finally, a case study was employed to analyze the advantages and disadvantages for soil squeezing effect. This paper firstly discussed the mechanism of soil squeezing effect, and analyzed the effect of time and space for soil squeezing. Then the opinion of plastic zone overlapping and effect of big pile was proposed, and the general methods to control soil squeezing effect were introduced. It was shown that it is important to apply driving pile on strait field. Finally, a case study was employed to analyze the advantages and disadvantages for soil squeezing effect.
Karst problem is a big puzzle to tunnel engineering professional for a long time, especially for karst geology forecasting in constructing tunnel, it is worth to research the accuracy and reliability of forecasting. The research considering-line is put out as this, the following aspects associate with each other, that is, macrograph with microscopic view, numerical modeling with systematic analysis, and qualitatively analysis with quantitatively analysis, thus the application research of forecasting method is mainly developed by using fractal theory. On the basis of fractal theory, according to the research production of fractal characteristic on microscopic fracture and pore, the basic conception, karst unit, is put forward, The fractal growing law of karst unit is described, macro-and micro-karst types are researched in fractal characteristics. According to the the calculated Comprehensive Index of Karst Fractal Assessment, the karst development degree is divided as five steps. Tongzilin tunnel is as an example of macro-and micro-karst types outside or underground the tunnel, the fractal index are calculated and the karst development degree is evaluated, all these have built the theory foundation on following karst geology fractal prediction before the working face of tunnel. Karst problem is a big puzzle to tunnel engineering professional for a long time, especially for karst geology forecasting in constructing tunnel, it is worth to research the accuracy and reliability of forecasting. The research considering-line is put out as this, the following aspects associate with each other, that is, macrograph with microscopic view, numerical modeling with systematic analysis, and qualitatively analysis with quantitatively analysis, thus the application research of forecasting method is mainly developed by using fractal theory. On the basis of fractal theory, according to the research production of fractal characteristic on microscopic fracture and pore, the basic conception, karst unit, is put forward, The fractal growing law of karst unit is described, macro-and micro-karst types are researched in fractal characteristics. According to the the calculated Comprehensive Index of Karst Fractal Assessment, the karst development degree is divided as five steps. Tongzilin tunnel is as an example of macro-and micro-karst types outside or underground the tunnel, the fractal index are calculated and the karst development degree is evaluated, all these have built the theory foundation on following karst geology fractal prediction before the working face of tunnel.
Soil arching effect is a hot topic in foundation project in decades years. But there are many problems related to it that should be given more attentions. In this paper, several aspects of soil arches in foundation project are analyzed, including the types of soil arches and the groundwater effect to the destruction of soil arches. The analysis and firstfruits is to impel the soil arches theory forward. Soil arching effect is a hot topic in foundation project in decades years. But there are many problems related to it that should be given more attentions. In this paper, several aspects of soil arches in foundation project are analyzed, including the types of soil arches and the groundwater effect to the destruction of soil arches. The analysis and firstfruits is to impel the soil arches theory forward.
Presently, the pre-stressed anchor already has been obtained widespread application for the foundation pits supports project. However, the rule of pre-stress changes after anchor is locked have not been researched thoroughly; especially when the foundation sidewall is soil slope. The rule of long time and short time pre-strssing losses is not awared clearly. Monitoring data shows that the load changes with time can be described as three phase. Phase I, instantaneous losses of load during the lock of operation.Phase II,,load slowly growth. In phase III, the load is almost uniform. Presently, the pre-stressed anchor already has been obtained widespread application for the foundation pits supports project. However, the rule of pre-stress changes after anchor is locked have not been researched thoroughly; especially when the foundation sidewall is soil slope. The rule of long time and short time pre-strssing losses is not awared clearly. Monitoring data shows that the load changes with time can be described as three phase. Phase I, instantaneous losses of load during the lock of operation.Phase II,,load slowly growth. In phase III, the load is almost uniform.
The evaluation of safety and endurance performance for underground buildings can be realized by means of integrated evaluation method of fuzzy mathematics. At first, the evaluation index system is established and their elementary factors which are relating to safety and endurance performance for underground buildings are selected. Then the grading tables for each index are formed according to evaluation rank, and the evaluation matrix is set up by technicians' marking through grading tables instead of the membership functions, the index's relative weight vectors are calculated by means of AHP method. Finally, the evaluation of the target system by using the quadratic integrated evaluative model can give effective references on safety and endurance performance for those existed underground buildings. The evaluation of safety and endurance performance for underground buildings can be realized by means of integrated evaluation method of fuzzy mathematics. At first, the evaluation index system is established and their elementary factors which are relating to safety and endurance performance for underground buildings are selected. Then the grading tables for each index are formed according to evaluation rank, and the evaluation matrix is set up by technicians' marking through grading tables instead of the membership functions, the index's relative weight vectors are calculated by means of AHP method. Finally, the evaluation of the target system by using the quadratic integrated evaluative model can give effective references on safety and endurance performance for those existed underground buildings.
This paper introduced Tube Wave Detecting Method in simple,Discussed the results of this method applying in Guangzhou Metro and testified the effects of thismethod in detail. This paper introduced Tube Wave Detecting Method in simple,Discussed the results of this method applying in Guangzhou Metro and testified the effects of thismethod in detail.
This paper establishes one plane FEM numerical analysis model based on Drucker-Prager elastic-plastic constitutive relation to simulate excavating and supporting of foundation pit. By means of this model combining with actual engineering it analyses the distribution rule of stress field and plastic zone and the deformation mechanism of displacement, sedimentation and bottom heave during excavation and retaining and finds the main factors that affect the deformation, that is, stiffness coefficient and stiffness of fulcrum installing and depth of excavation and soil parameters. This paper establishes one plane FEM numerical analysis model based on Drucker-Prager elastic-plastic constitutive relation to simulate excavating and supporting of foundation pit. By means of this model combining with actual engineering it analyses the distribution rule of stress field and plastic zone and the deformation mechanism of displacement, sedimentation and bottom heave during excavation and retaining and finds the main factors that affect the deformation, that is, stiffness coefficient and stiffness of fulcrum installing and depth of excavation and soil parameters.
The engineering example about a tall building in Xi'an which has successfully used CFG pour piles is introduced in this paper. In the past years, foundation designs to tall buildings of similar engineering geological conditions usually used the pour piles of 800mm in diameter and 40m in length, which had the disadvantages,such as on great construction difficulty, long construction period and high cost price on foundation. While the CFG pour short piles Method is successfully used in the design of tall building over 25 floors' height. And the Method takes advantage of shorter period, less difficulty, less cost price and better quality on construction, which shows a good example for the similar engineering geological structures to fully use harding pebble bearing layers below ground. The engineering example about a tall building in Xi'an which has successfully used CFG pour piles is introduced in this paper. In the past years, foundation designs to tall buildings of similar engineering geological conditions usually used the pour piles of 800mm in diameter and 40m in length, which had the disadvantages,such as on great construction difficulty, long construction period and high cost price on foundation. While the CFG pour short piles Method is successfully used in the design of tall building over 25 floors' height. And the Method takes advantage of shorter period, less difficulty, less cost price and better quality on construction, which shows a good example for the similar engineering geological structures to fully use harding pebble bearing layers below ground.
Considering climatic characteristics and burial depth of groundwater in loess region, the main solute eluent source is from the rainwater infiltration after municipal solid waste was filled to cover up, the thickness of covered soil should be design by rainfall infiltration depth. According to soil physics and saturated-unsaturated seepage theory, make use of grain size analysis experiment, we can obtain soil-water characteristic curve and permeability curve. Through numerical simulation with finite element method, we can understand moisture infiltration law under various rainfall conditions, which offer reference and principle to the covered layer plan of landfill and solute transfer about eluent. Considering climatic characteristics and burial depth of groundwater in loess region, the main solute eluent source is from the rainwater infiltration after municipal solid waste was filled to cover up, the thickness of covered soil should be design by rainfall infiltration depth. According to soil physics and saturated-unsaturated seepage theory, make use of grain size analysis experiment, we can obtain soil-water characteristic curve and permeability curve. Through numerical simulation with finite element method, we can understand moisture infiltration law under various rainfall conditions, which offer reference and principle to the covered layer plan of landfill and solute transfer about eluent.
The relationship between the permeability coefficient and lapse of time was investigated by the simulated experiments. The effect of lapse of time on the permeability coefficient of the leachate collection system and the diameter of crystallization metacolloid was analyzed by using the leachate collection system composed of geotextile, MSW incinerated ash and gravel. The results show that the adhesion crystals on geotextile were growing to become more compact between crystallization metacolloids with increasing of the lapse of time because of the crystallization of calcium carbonate and calcium aluminate,the permeability of leachate collection system became small. Based the experimental results, the density of waste is not high to be advantageous for permeability when the MSW incinerated ash is compacted. The relationship between the permeability coefficient and lapse of time was investigated by the simulated experiments. The effect of lapse of time on the permeability coefficient of the leachate collection system and the diameter of crystallization metacolloid was analyzed by using the leachate collection system composed of geotextile, MSW incinerated ash and gravel. The results show that the adhesion crystals on geotextile were growing to become more compact between crystallization metacolloids with increasing of the lapse of time because of the crystallization of calcium carbonate and calcium aluminate,the permeability of leachate collection system became small. Based the experimental results, the density of waste is not high to be advantageous for permeability when the MSW incinerated ash is compacted.
Aged-refuse is defined as a kind of stabilized garbage, which has been buried for years. The special chemical/physical characters of aged-refuse make its future bright, especially in the aspect of environment protection. In this essay, the concept and characteristics of aged-refuse was reviewed. Through outlining its research development in respects of engineering utilization, landfill leachate treating and NOX purring, prospects of advanced utilization of aged-refuse was put forward. Aged-refuse is defined as a kind of stabilized garbage, which has been buried for years. The special chemical/physical characters of aged-refuse make its future bright, especially in the aspect of environment protection. In this essay, the concept and characteristics of aged-refuse was reviewed. Through outlining its research development in respects of engineering utilization, landfill leachate treating and NOX purring, prospects of advanced utilization of aged-refuse was put forward.
In this paper, in accordance with the features of landfill, the effect of geological environment for the sanitary landfill of city rubbish is analyzed in respect of the interactions between landfill and geological surroundings, including geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste landfill materials, landfill slope stability and landfill lining system are effecting the geological environment. The improvement measure is put forward and set up the supervise system for its. In this paper, in accordance with the features of landfill, the effect of geological environment for the sanitary landfill of city rubbish is analyzed in respect of the interactions between landfill and geological surroundings, including geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste landfill materials, landfill slope stability and landfill lining system are effecting the geological environment. The improvement measure is put forward and set up the supervise system for its.
It is fast developed economy and protected the circumstance .If the mountainous area economy is the persistencable good circle, it is quite key. Rule of surface water and groundwater is researched in Yuebei for put forward doable father countermeasure. The aim is turn into the persistencable good circle between people and nature. It is fast developed economy and protected the circumstance .If the mountainous area economy is the persistencable good circle, it is quite key. Rule of surface water and groundwater is researched in Yuebei for put forward doable father countermeasure. The aim is turn into the persistencable good circle between people and nature.
Groundwater problem, which is the critical problem for the human to live and develop.In order to forecast the dynamic variation of the groundwater level in cities, when there are some variables relating with each other and few observational data available, we can set up the MGM(1,n) model. By applying grey MGM(1,n) model, we can describe the dynamic variation of the groundwater level, and satisfying results are obtained. Groundwater problem, which is the critical problem for the human to live and develop.In order to forecast the dynamic variation of the groundwater level in cities, when there are some variables relating with each other and few observational data available, we can set up the MGM(1,n) model. By applying grey MGM(1,n) model, we can describe the dynamic variation of the groundwater level, and satisfying results are obtained.
Groundwater has been polluted in different degree all over our country which poses considerable influence for economy. Groundwater vulnerability assessment can give directions on water planning and management. Based on the groundwater vulnerability assessment approaches used all over the world, this paper has established fuzzy synthesis approach using DRASTIC model in Nanchang city. The new approach overcomes difference of DRASTIC rating and discontinuousness on index value. It tries to seek optimization of DRASTIC rating and continuous change on parameters. The concept of index standard eigenvalue has been cited in order to determine index rating. Considering the data and information obtained in the study area, index standard eigenvalue matrix which sets corresponding to 10 linguistic classes used for determining the groundwater contamination degree of every parameter has been founded and relative optimization value has been established. This new approach is applied to groundwater vulnerability assessment in programming area with MAPGIS software, The result shows that the distributing pattern of contamination are well consistent with groundwater environment quality forecasted and measured in this area., which has practical meaning in helping relative departments to establish prevention project and management steps of groundwater contamination. Groundwater has been polluted in different degree all over our country which poses considerable influence for economy. Groundwater vulnerability assessment can give directions on water planning and management. Based on the groundwater vulnerability assessment approaches used all over the world, this paper has established fuzzy synthesis approach using DRASTIC model in Nanchang city. The new approach overcomes difference of DRASTIC rating and discontinuousness on index value. It tries to seek optimization of DRASTIC rating and continuous change on parameters. The concept of index standard eigenvalue has been cited in order to determine index rating. Considering the data and information obtained in the study area, index standard eigenvalue matrix which sets corresponding to 10 linguistic classes used for determining the groundwater contamination degree of every parameter has been founded and relative optimization value has been established. This new approach is applied to groundwater vulnerability assessment in programming area with MAPGIS software, The result shows that the distributing pattern of contamination are well consistent with groundwater environment quality forecasted and measured in this area., which has practical meaning in helping relative departments to establish prevention project and management steps of groundwater contamination.
Landfilling is the most important controlled method for municipal solid waste disposal, landfills is usually built in valleies or areas with stiff foundation soil. However, in beachfront ares,the landfills have to be constructed on soft soil. The consolidation and stability of foundation soil will then affect directly the safety and function of the landfill. However, either experience or research work is scarce on this question. On the hand, the ground water must protect from being polluted by poisonous water leaking from the landfill, on the other hand, fast consolidation is necessary to increase the strength and bearing capacity of soft soil, which bring forward new problem on foundation design and on ground treatment. Based on the research of one landfill, the consolidation and deformation of the soft ground were analyzed, which may be helpful to landfill designing on soft foundation. Landfilling is the most important controlled method for municipal solid waste disposal, landfills is usually built in valleies or areas with stiff foundation soil. However, in beachfront ares,the landfills have to be constructed on soft soil. The consolidation and stability of foundation soil will then affect directly the safety and function of the landfill. However, either experience or research work is scarce on this question. On the hand, the ground water must protect from being polluted by poisonous water leaking from the landfill, on the other hand, fast consolidation is necessary to increase the strength and bearing capacity of soft soil, which bring forward new problem on foundation design and on ground treatment. Based on the research of one landfill, the consolidation and deformation of the soft ground were analyzed, which may be helpful to landfill designing on soft foundation.
The city of Chengdu is lie in the southeast edge of alluvial-proluvial fan. The groundwater of there is rich. Through the analysis of groundwater hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater quality assessment, it can be known the situations of groundwater quality, the characteristics of distrusting and the main influence reason. The city of Chengdu is lie in the southeast edge of alluvial-proluvial fan. The groundwater of there is rich. Through the analysis of groundwater hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater quality assessment, it can be known the situations of groundwater quality, the characteristics of distrusting and the main influence reason.
The plain-type landfill is one of the important landfill type. Firstly, the characteristic of the plain-type landfill is elaborated in this paper. Then the groundwater pollution problem appearing in site planning and leachate-drainage-prevention employed before 1980's in China is analyzed. In order to mitigate the groundwater contamination from leachate, the vertical-drainage-prevention wall must be constructed as a drainage-prevention measure. Finally, the grouting material and chemical grouting was introduced, and the vertical-drainage-prevention technology is summarized. The plain-type landfill is one of the important landfill type. Firstly, the characteristic of the plain-type landfill is elaborated in this paper. Then the groundwater pollution problem appearing in site planning and leachate-drainage-prevention employed before 1980's in China is analyzed. In order to mitigate the groundwater contamination from leachate, the vertical-drainage-prevention wall must be constructed as a drainage-prevention measure. Finally, the grouting material and chemical grouting was introduced, and the vertical-drainage-prevention technology is summarized.
By adopting the advanced monitor instrument and the modern wireless communication technology, a set of long-distance wireless datum transmission system for landslip monitoring has been developed, which is made up of three major parts: control center, GSM network and leading terminal station. One of the system's ends joins the monitoring instrument fixed on the monitoring point in landslip, the other end links with control center. The one-chip computer controls and gathers and changes with A/D the parameter from sensor of the leading terminal station, the receiving and dispatching module (TC35) conveys the data to the control center by GSM after dealing with, in order to realize the tasks of data transmission, data management, establishment of monitoring model, dispatching of pre-warning message; besides it could analyze and process the monitoring data, for researchers to use. This system could be supplied by the solar energy, suitable for the remote districts especially. Through modeling in room, the function of the system is stable; the data is transmitted promptly and accurately. By adopting the advanced monitor instrument and the modern wireless communication technology, a set of long-distance wireless datum transmission system for landslip monitoring has been developed, which is made up of three major parts: control center, GSM network and leading terminal station. One of the system's ends joins the monitoring instrument fixed on the monitoring point in landslip, the other end links with control center. The one-chip computer controls and gathers and changes with A/D the parameter from sensor of the leading terminal station, the receiving and dispatching module (TC35) conveys the data to the control center by GSM after dealing with, in order to realize the tasks of data transmission, data management, establishment of monitoring model, dispatching of pre-warning message; besides it could analyze and process the monitoring data, for researchers to use. This system could be supplied by the solar energy, suitable for the remote districts especially. Through modeling in room, the function of the system is stable; the data is transmitted promptly and accurately.
Establishing the Urban Engineering Geological Information System is the best way to administer and apply the urban geological data. The essay expounds the UEGIS function, ensemble framework, database contents, soft & hardware in particular, eventually the key steps have been put out according with an example. Establishing the Urban Engineering Geological Information System is the best way to administer and apply the urban geological data. The essay expounds the UEGIS function, ensemble framework, database contents, soft & hardware in particular, eventually the key steps have been put out according with an example.
Along with the city's development, the balance of geologic environment was destroyed. The work of city's geological investigation looks very importance. Find out the status of geologic environment and developmental trend is very necessary of city's modern construct. Base on the GIS technology of digital special database and computer constructive, is become the new mainstream work's mode. The text based on the 3s technology, integrated analysis the city's geological data, afford the basic video information data of geological. Along with the city's development, the balance of geologic environment was destroyed. The work of city's geological investigation looks very importance. Find out the status of geologic environment and developmental trend is very necessary of city's modern construct. Base on the GIS technology of digital special database and computer constructive, is become the new mainstream work's mode. The text based on the 3s technology, integrated analysis the city's geological data, afford the basic video information data of geological.
This paper, based on the basic theory of urban engineering geological zoning and the basic method and technology of GIS, lays emphasis on discussing the methods of urban engineering geological mapping and zoning. Based on the demand of urban engineering mapping, it talks about a physical composition method of multi-source and multi-size spatial information, such as bed rock and remote sensing, and uses the result to make research of regional engineering geological environment, geological character and geological disaster. And then, it prefers a quantitative method of urban engineering geological zoning, called suitability zoning of fuzzy comprehensive assessment. It sets up a mathematical model of evaluation by selection four essential factors, and gives weight for every factor by expert. It makes a case study by the method of suitability zoning of fuzzy comprehensive assessment. This paper, based on the basic theory of urban engineering geological zoning and the basic method and technology of GIS, lays emphasis on discussing the methods of urban engineering geological mapping and zoning. Based on the demand of urban engineering mapping, it talks about a physical composition method of multi-source and multi-size spatial information, such as bed rock and remote sensing, and uses the result to make research of regional engineering geological environment, geological character and geological disaster. And then, it prefers a quantitative method of urban engineering geological zoning, called suitability zoning of fuzzy comprehensive assessment. It sets up a mathematical model of evaluation by selection four essential factors, and gives weight for every factor by expert. It makes a case study by the method of suitability zoning of fuzzy comprehensive assessment.
Having cooperated construction on Guangzhou city geology information system, this text has discussed a series of choke-point question such as how to obtain high quality special data, standardization & share on basic data, interface among those different operation platform which limit development of GIS, and submit preliminary solutions. Having cooperated construction on Guangzhou city geology information system, this text has discussed a series of choke-point question such as how to obtain high quality special data, standardization & share on basic data, interface among those different operation platform which limit development of GIS, and submit preliminary solutions.
The formulation of GIS technique is technology of the computer and common result of information-based development, manage and study the technological system of the space data, can obtain and meet information which uses the need rapidly, result that can be dealt with in the forms of the map, figure or data. This paper introduces the application actuality of GIS technique, establishes the necessary of geological hazard information system and system structure of GIS technique application which in geological hazard information system, and first discusses the foundation of geological hazard database and model, all of this have very important function for predominate quietly the distribution of natural hazard. In a certainly range, forecast and predict the possible natural hazard of engineering, defend and treat with the geological hazard and finally ensure the society's safety. The understand and abstract process that from external world to information world, and the development and transform of reconstruct process's utilizes that from information world return external world, and creat favorable condition and environment. The formulation of GIS technique is technology of the computer and common result of information-based development, manage and study the technological system of the space data, can obtain and meet information which uses the need rapidly, result that can be dealt with in the forms of the map, figure or data. This paper introduces the application actuality of GIS technique, establishes the necessary of geological hazard information system and system structure of GIS technique application which in geological hazard information system, and first discusses the foundation of geological hazard database and model, all of this have very important function for predominate quietly the distribution of natural hazard. In a certainly range, forecast and predict the possible natural hazard of engineering, defend and treat with the geological hazard and finally ensure the society's safety. The understand and abstract process that from external world to information world, and the development and transform of reconstruct process's utilizes that from information world return external world, and creat favorable condition and environment.
This paper as studies the region take main urban area of Xi'an, based on geographic information system (GIS) and the cluster analysis, the fuzzy comprehensive judgment, has studied based on the GIS support urban geo environment quality comprehensive judgment method; According to main urban area of Xi'an geoenvironment characteristic, by considering such factor as terrain slope, engineering geological rock groups, structural type of rock and soil mass, ground water level, vegetation growth conditions, monthly precipitation, intensity of human engineering activities, uses Q cluster analysis to divides the district of survey into 25 geology environment quality district, divides into the whole city 25 geology environment quality district, and classifies them into 4 grades of geological environment quality by using fuzzy comprehensive judgment, it reflects the macro-distribution feature of the geological environment quality of main urban area of Xi'an objectively. This paper as studies the region take main urban area of Xi'an, based on geographic information system (GIS) and the cluster analysis, the fuzzy comprehensive judgment, has studied based on the GIS support urban geo environment quality comprehensive judgment method; According to main urban area of Xi'an geoenvironment characteristic, by considering such factor as terrain slope, engineering geological rock groups, structural type of rock and soil mass, ground water level, vegetation growth conditions, monthly precipitation, intensity of human engineering activities, uses Q cluster analysis to divides the district of survey into 25 geology environment quality district, divides into the whole city 25 geology environment quality district, and classifies them into 4 grades of geological environment quality by using fuzzy comprehensive judgment, it reflects the macro-distribution feature of the geological environment quality of main urban area of Xi'an objectively.